Food quality and safety issues continue to dominate the press, with most food companies spending large amounts of money to ensure that the food quality and assessment procedures in place are adequate and produce good and safe food. This holds true for companies and laboratories responsible for the processing of fish into various products, those responsible for researching safe new products, and departments within other companies supporting these functions. Fishery Products brings together details of all the major methodologies used to assess the quality of fishery products in the widest sense.
Subject coverage of this important book includes chapters on assessment of authenticity, and several chapters on quality assessment using various methods, such as: Texture measurement Electronic nose and tongue NMR Colour measurement This timely volume will serve as a vital tool for all those working in the processing of fishery and aquaculture products: including laboratory personnel working in regulatory bodies, food quality control personnel, food scientists, food technologists, nutritionists, seafood trade bodies, seafood labelling regulatory bodies, government food protection agencies and environmental health personnel. Libraries in research establishments and universities where food science, food technology, nutrition, aquaculture, fisheries and biological sciences are studied and taught should have copies of this important publication on their shelves.
Dr Hartmut Rehbein and Prof. Dr Jorg Oehlenschlager both of Max Rubner-Institut, Federal Research Institute for Nutrition and Food, Department of Safety and Quality of Milk and Fish Products, Germany
List of contributors Preface Introduction Chapter 1 Basic facts and figures ( Jorg Oehlenschlager and Hartmut Rehbein). 1.1 Introduction 1.2 World fishery production 1.3 Categories of fish species 1.4 Fish muscle 1.5 Nutritional composition 1.6 Vitamins 1.7 Minerals 1.8 Post mortem changes in fish muscle 1.9 References and further reading Chapter 2 Traditional methods ( Peter Howgate). 2.1 Introduction 2.2 TVB-N 2.3 Methylamines 2.4 Volatile acids 2.5 Volatile reducing substances 2.6 Indole 2.7 Proteolysis and amino acids 2.8 pH 2.9 Refractive index of eye fluids 2.10 Discussion and summary 2.11 References Chapter 3 Biogenic amines ( Rogerio Mendes). 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Factors affecting amine decarboxylase activity 3.3 Safety aspects 3.4 Quality assessment 3.5 Regulatory issues 3.6 Methods of biogenic amine determination 3.7 References Chapter 4 ATP-derived products and K-value determination ( Margarita Tejada). 4.1 In vivo role of nucleotides 4.2 Post mortem changes 4.3 Methodology for evaluating the K-value or related compounds 4.4 Conclusions 4.5 References Chapter 5 VIS/NIR spectroscopy ( Heidi Anita Nilsen and Karsten Heia). 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Analytical principles and measurements 5.3 Constituents: assessment of chemical composition 5.4 Freshness and storage time 5.5 Authentication 5.6 Safety 5.7 Other quality parameters 5.8 Summary and future perspectives 5.9 References Chapter 6 Electronic nose and electronic tongue ( Corrado Di Natale and Gudrun Olafsdottir). 6.1 Introduction to the electronic nose and olfaction 6.2 Application of the electronic nose and electronic tongue 6.3 Colorimetric techniques, optical equipment and consumer electronics 6.4 Classification of fish odours 6.5 Quality indicators in fish during chilled storage: gas chromatography analysis of volatile compounds 6.6 Application of the electronic nose for evaluation of fish freshness 6.7 Combined electronic noses for estimating fish freshness 6.8 Conclusions and future outlook 6.9 References Chapter 7 Colour measurement ( Reinhard Schubring). 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Instrumentation 7.3 Novel methods of colour evaluation 7.4 Colour measurement on fish and fishery products 7.5 Summary 7.6 References Chapter 8 Differential scanning calorimetry ( Reinhard Schubring). 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Principle of function of the instruments 8.3 First applications of DSC on fish muscle and other seafood 8.4 Recent applications of DSC for investigating quality and safety 8.5 Summary 8.6 References Chapter 9 Instrumental texture measurement ( Mercedes Careche and Marta Barroso). 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Instrumental texture 9.3 Texture measurement for quality classification or prediction 9.4 Conclusions 9.5 References Chapter 10 Image processing ( Michael Kroeger). 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Quality characteristics from images 10.3 Spectral signature of images 10.4 Elastic properties from images 10.5 Analysis of image data 10.6 Results and discussion 10.7 Freshness determination from images 10.8 Firmness information from images 10.9 Conclusions 10.10 References Chapter 11 Nuclear magnetic resonance ( Marit Aursand, Emil Veliyulin, Inger B. Standal, Eva Falch, Ida G. Aursand and Ulf Erikson). 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Magnetic resonance imaging 11.3 Low-field NMR 11.4 High-resolution NMR 11.5 The future of NMR in seafood 11.6 References Chapter 12 Time domain spectroscopy ( Michael Kent and Frank Daschner). 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Measurement system 12.3 Time domain reflectometry measurements 12.4 Conclusions 12.5 References Chapter 13 Measuring electrical properties ( Michael Kent and Jorg Oehlenschlager). 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Fischtester 13.3 Torrymeter 13.4 Use of the Fischtester 13.5 Summary 13.6 References Chapter 14 Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis ( Flemming Jessen). 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) 14.3 2DE applications in seafood science 14.4 2DE-based seafood science in the future 14.5 References Chapter 15 Microbiological methods ( Ulrike Lyhs). 15.1 Microorganisms in fish and fish products 15.2 General aspects of microbiological methods 15.3 Most probable number method 15.4 Molecular methods 15.5 References Chapter 16 Protein-based methods ( Hartmut Rehbein). 16.1 Introduction 16.2 Fish muscle proteins 16.3 Electrophoretic methods for fish species identification 16.4 High-performance liquid chromatography 16.5 Immunological methods and detection of allergenic proteins 16.6 Determination of heating temperature 16.7 Differentiation of fresh and frozen/thawed fish fillets 16.8 References Chapter 17 DNA-based methods ( Hartmut Rehbein). 17.1 Introduction 17.2 DNA in fishery products 17.3 Genes used for species identification 17.4 Methods 17.5 Conclusions and outlook 17.6 References Chapter 18 Other principles: analysis of lipids, stable isotopes and trace elements ( Iciar Martinez). 18.1 Introduction 18.2 Species and breeding stock identification by lipid analysis 18.3 Verification of the production method 18.4 Identification of the geographic origin 18.5 Future prospects 18.6 References Chapter 19 Sensory evaluation of seafood: general principles and guidelines (Emilia Martinsdottir, Rian Schelvis, Grethe Hyldig and Kolbrun Sveinsdottir). 19.1 General principles for sensory analysis 19.2 Application of sensory evaluation to fish and other seafood 19.3 References Chapter 20 Sensory evaluation of seafood: methods ( Emilia Martinsdottir, Rian Schelvis, Grethe Hyldig and Kolbrun Sveinsdottir). 20.1 Introduction 20.2 Difference tests 20.3 Grading schemes 20.4 Quality index method 20.5 Descriptive sensory analysis 20.6 Consumer tests (hedonic) 20.7 References Chapter 21 Data handling by multivariate data analysis ( Bo M. Jorgensen). 21.1 Introduction 21.2 What is multivariate data analysis? 21.3 Arrangement of data for bi-linear modelling 21.4 The outcome of bi-linear modelling 21.5 Validation and prediction 21.6 Real examples and further reading 21.7 References Chapter 22 Traceability as a tool ( Erling P. Larsen and Begona Perez Villarreal). 22.1 Introduction 22.2 Traceability from older times to the present 22.3 Traceability research in the seafood sector and other EU-funded food traceability projects 22.4 Validation of traceability data 22.5 Traceability in a global perspective 22.6 References Index
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