Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineering

Fluid Mechanics for Chemical Engineering

By: Mathieu Mory (author)Hardback

Up to 2 WeeksUsually despatched within 2 weeks

Description

The book aims at providing to master and PhD students the basic knowledge in fluid mechanics for chemical engineers. Applications to mixing and reaction and to mechanical separation processes are addressed. The first part of the book presents the principles of fluid mechanics used by chemical engineers, with a focus on global theorems for describing the behavior of hydraulic systems. The second part deals with turbulence and its application for stirring, mixing and chemical reaction. The third part addresses mechanical separation processes by considering the dynamics of particles in a flow and the processes of filtration, fluidization and centrifugation. The mechanics of granular media is finally discussed.

About Author

Mathieu Mory, Universit de Pau et des pays de l'Adour, France.

Contents

Preface xiii PART I. ELEMENTS IN FLUID MECHANICS 1 Chapter 1. Local Equations of Fluid Mechanics 3 1.1. Forces, stress tensor, and pressure 4 1.2. Navier Stokes equations in Cartesian coordinates 6 1.3. The plane Poiseuille flow 10 1.4. Navier Stokes equations in cylindrical coordinates: Poiseuille flow in a circular cylindrical pipe 13 1.5. Plane Couette flow 17 1.6. The boundary layer concept 19 1.7. Solutions of Navier Stokes equations where a gravity field is present, hydrostatic pressure 22 1.8. Buoyancy force 25 1.9. Some conclusions on the solutions of Navier Stokes equations 26 Chapter 2. Global Theorems of Fluid Mechanics 29 2.1. Euler equations in an intrinsic coordinate system 30 2.2. Bernoulli s theorem 31 2.3. Pressure variation in a direction normal to a streamline 33 2.4. Momentum theorem 36 2.5. Evaluating friction for a steady-state flow in a straight pipe 38 2.6. Pressure drop in a sudden expansion (Borda calculation) 40 2.7. Using the momentum theorem in the presence of gravity 43 2.8. Kinetic energy balance and dissipation 43 2.9. Application exercises 47 Exercise 2.I: Force exerted on a bend 47 Exercise 2.II: Emptying a tank 48 Exercise 2.III: Pressure drop in a sudden expansion and heating 48 Exercise 2.IV: Streaming flow on an inclined plane 49 Exercise 2.V: Impact of a jet on a sloping plate 50 Exercise 2.VI: Operation of a hydro-ejector 51 Exercise 2.VII: Bypass flow 53 Chapter 3. Dimensional Analysis 55 3.1. Principle of dimensional analysis, Vaschy Buckingham theorem 56 3.2. Dimensional study of Navier Stokes equations 61 3.3. Similarity theory 63 3.4. An application example: fall velocity of a spherical particle in a viscous fluid at rest 65 3.5. Application exercises 69 Exercise 3.I: Time of residence and chemical reaction in a stirred reactor 69 Exercise 3.II: Boundary layer on an oscillating plate 69 Exercise 3.III: Head capacity curve of a centrifugal pump 70 Chapter 4. Steady-State Hydraulic Circuits 73 4.1. Operating point of a hydraulic circuit 73 4.2. Steady-state flows in straight pipes: regular head loss 78 4.3. Turbulence in a pipe and velocity profile of the flow 81 4.4. Singular head losses 83 4.5. Notions on cavitation 87 4.6. Application exercises 88 Exercise 4.I: Regular head loss measurement and flow rate in a pipe 88 Exercise 4.II: Head loss and cavitation in a hydraulic circuit 89 Exercise 4.III: Ventilation of a road tunnel 91 Exercise 4.IV: Sizing a network of heating pipes 92 Exercise 4.V: Head, flow rate, and output of a hydroelectric power plant 93 4.7. Bibliography 93 Chapter 5. Pumps 95 5.1. Centrifugal pumps 96 5.2. Classification of turbo pumps and axial pumps 105 5.3. Positive displacement pumps 106 Chapter 6. Transient Flows in Hydraulic Circuits: Water Hammers 111 6.1. Sound propagation in a rigid pipe 111 6.2. Over-pressures associated with a water hammer: characteristic time of a hydraulic circuit 115 6.3. Linear elasticity of a solid body: sound propagation in an elastic pipe 118 6.4. Water hammer prevention devices 120 Exercise 121 Chapter 7. Notions of Rheometry 123 7.1. Rheology 123 7.2. Strain, strain rate, solids and fluids 126 7.3. A rheology experiment: behavior of a material subjected to shear 129 7.4. The circular cylindrical rheometer (or Couette rheometer) 132 7.5. Application exercises 136 Exercise 7.I: Rheometry and flow of a Bingham fluid in a pipe 136 Exercise 7.II: Cone/plate rheometer 137 PART II. MIXING AND CHEMICAL REACTIONS 139 Chapter 8. Large Scales in Turbulence: Turbulent Diffusion Dispersion 141 8.1. Introduction 141 8.2. Concept of average in the turbulent sense, steady turbulence, and homogeneous turbulence 142 8.3. Average velocity and RMS turbulent velocity 145 8.4. Length scale of turbulence: integral scale 146 8.5. Turbulent flux of a scalar quantity: averaged diffusion equation 151 8.6. Modeling turbulent fluxes using the mixing length model 153 8.7. Turbulent dispersion 157 8.8. The k- model 159 8.9. Appendix: solution of a diffusion equation in cylindrical coordinates 163 8.10. Application exercises 165 Exercise 8.I: Dispersion of fluid streaks introduced into a pipe by a network of capillary tubes 165 Exercise 8.II: Grid turbulence and k- modeling 167 Chapter 9. Hydrodynamics and Residence Time Distribution Stirring 171 9.1. Turbulence and residence time distribution 172 9.2. Stirring 178 9.3. Appendix: interfaces and the notion of surface tension 185 Chapter 10. Micromixing and Macromixing 193 10.1. Introduction 193 10.2. Characterization of the mixture: segregation index 195 10.3. The dynamics of mixing 198 10.4. Homogenization of a scalar field by molecular diffusion: micromixing 201 10.5. Diffusion and chemical reactions 202 10.6. Macromixing, micromixing, and chemical reactions 204 10.7. Experimental demonstration of the micromixing process 205 Chapter 11. Small Scales in Turbulence 209 11.1. Notion of signal processing, expansion of a time signal into Fourier series 210 11.2. Turbulent energy spectrum 213 11.3. Kolmogorov s theory 214 11.4. The Kolmogorov scale 218 11.5. Application to macromixing, micromixing and chemical reaction 221 11.6. Application exercises 222 Exercise 11.I: Mixing in a continuous stirred tank reactor 222 Exercise 11.II: Mixing and combustion 223 Exercise 11.III: Laminar and turbulent diffusion flames 225 Chapter 12. Micromixing Models 229 12.1. Introduction 229 12.2. CD model 233 12.3. Model of interaction by exchange with the mean 245 12.4. Conclusion 250 12.5. Application exercise 251 Exercise 12.I: Implementation of the IEM model for a slow or fast chemical reaction 251 PART III. MECHANICAL SEPARATION 253 Chapter 13. Physical Description of a Particulate Medium Dispersed Within a Fluid 255 13.1. Introduction 255 13.2. Solid particles 257 13.3 Fluid particles 270 13.4. Mass balance of a mechanical separation process 273 Chapter 14. Flows in Porous Media 277 14.1. Consolidated porous media; non-consolidated porous media, and geometrical characterization 278 14.2. Darcy s law 280 14.3. Examples of application of Darcy s law 282 14.4. Modeling Darcy s law through an analogy with the flow inside a network of capillary tubes 289 14.5. Modeling permeability, Kozeny-Carman formula 291 14.6. Ergun s relation 293 14.7. Draining by pressing 293 14.8. The reverse osmosis process 298 14.9. Energetics of membrane separation 301 14.10. Application exercises 301 Exercise: Study of a seawater desalination process 301 Chapter 15. Particles Within the Gravity Field 305 15.1. Settling of a rigid particle in a fluid at rest 306 15.2. Settling of a set of solid particles in a fluid at rest 309 15.3. Settling or rising of a fluid particle in a fluid at rest 312 15.4. Particles being held in suspension by Brownian motion 315 15.5. Particles being held in suspension by turbulence 319 15.6. Fluidized beds 321 15.7. Application exercises 329 Exercise 15.I: Distribution of particles in suspension and grain size sorting resulting from settling 329 Exercise 15.II: Fluidization of a bimodal distribution of particles 330 Chapter 16. Movement of a Solid Particle in a Fluid Flow 331 16.1. Notations and hypotheses 332 16.2. The Basset, Boussinesq, Oseen, and Tchen equation 333 16.3. Movement of a particle subjected to gravity in a fluid at rest 336 16.4. Movement of a particle in a steady, unidirectional shear flow 339 16.5. Lift force applied to a particle by a unidirectional flow 341 16.6. Centrifugation of a particle in a rotating flow 350 16.7. Applications to the transport of a particle in a turbulent flow or in a laminar flow 355 Chapter 17. Centrifugal Separation 359 17.1 Rotating flows, circulation, and velocity curl 360 17.2. Some examples of rotating flows 364 17.3. The principle of centrifugal separation 377 17.4. Centrifuge decanters 381 17.5. Centrifugal separators 385 17.6. Centrifugal filtration 388 17.7. Hydrocyclones 391 17.8. Energetics of centrifugal separation 396 17.9. Application exercise 397 Exercise 17.I: Grain size sorting in a hydrocyclone 397 Chapter 18. Notions on Granular Materials 401 18.1. Static friction: Coulomb s law of friction 402 18.2. Non-cohesive granular materials: Angle of repose, angle of internal friction 403 18.3. Microscopic approach to a granular material 405 18.4. Macroscopic modeling of the equilibrium of a granular material in a silo 407 18.5. Flow of a granular material: example of an hourglass 413 Physical Properties of Common Fluids 417 Index 419

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781848212817
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 438
  • ID: 9781848212817
  • weight: 778
  • ISBN10: 184821281X

Delivery Information

  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
  • Courier Delivery: Yes
  • Store Delivery: Yes

Prices are for internet purchases only. Prices and availability in WHSmith Stores may vary significantly

Close