Animal products are vital components of the diets and livelihoods of people across sub-Saharan Africa. They are frequently traded in local, unregulated markets and this can pose significant health risks. This volume presents an accessible overview of these issues in the context of food safety, zoonoses and public health, while at the same time maintaining fair and equitable livelihoods for poorer people across the continent.
The book includes a review of the key issues and 25 case studies of the meat, milk, egg and fish food sectors drawn from a wide range of countries in East, West and Southern Africa, as part of the "Safe Food, Fair Food" project. It describes a realistic analysis of food safety risk by developing a methodology of `participatory food safety risk assessment', involving small-scale producers and consumers in the process of data collection in a data-poor environment often found in developing countries. This approach aims to ensure market access for poor producers, while adopting a realistic and pragmatic strategy for reducing the risk of food-borne diseases for consumers.
Kristina Roesel is co-ordinator of the Safe Food, Fair Food project, based at the International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya, and also a doctorate candidate at the Free University, Berlin, Germany. Delia Grace is Program Leader, Food Safety and Zoonoses, Integrated Sciences, at the International Livestock Research Institute, Nairobi, Kenya.
1. Introduction Part 1: Food Safety in Sub-Saharan Africa 2. Taking Food Safety to Informal Markets 3. Informal Markets are Not Necessarily Dangerous and Formal Markets are Not Necessarily Safe 4. Hazards do not always Translate into Risks 5. Can Participation Improve Food Safety? 6. Farmers, Traders and Retailers are Risk Managers 7. Understanding Values and Culture is Crucial for Food Safety Management 8. Can Food Safety be Pro-poor? 9. Gender Aspects of Informal Markets for Animal-source Food Part 2: Twenty-five Proof-of-concept Studies from Sub-Saharan Africa 10. Inadequate Access to Safe Water for Livestock and People in Rural Ethiopia 11. Low Quality of Water and Milk in Rural Ethiopia Poses Risks to Human Health 12. Is Ethiopian Raw Milk Safe for Human Consumption? 13. Milk Quality in Peri-urban Dar es Salaam: Cream on Top or Tip of the Iceberg? 14. Equal Pay for Equal Work in Kenya 15. Kenya's Economic Gain leading to Health Pain? 16. Emerging Diseases threaten Ghana's Emerging Milk Market 17. Hand-washing is Likely to turn Ivorian Milk into a Safe and Competitive Product 18. When Clean Milk Production cannot be Assured, Boiling before Consumption is Non-negotiable 19. Are Malarial Symptoms Mistaken for Brucellosis in Mali? 20. Boiling Milk Disrupts the Social Order of Communities in Mali 21. Beef in Export Abattoirs not Safer than that in Local Abattoirs 22. A Single Slip may cause Lasting Injury: Beef in Kenya Contaminated from the Start 23. Risky Roast Beef in Tanzania 24. Risky Roast Beef in Tanzania? Not yet Confirmed! 25. Informal Markets in Mozambique Risky for Local Chicken 26. Arrive Alive in South Africa: Chicken Meat the Least to Worry About 27. Informal Selling of Meat in South Africa 28. How an Antelope could Alleviate Poverty in South Africa 29. Sustainable Livelihoods in South Africa through Marketing of Biltong 30. Participation: (un)Manageable Tool for Risk Analysis of Traditional Slaughter of Goats in South Africa? 31. A Critical Review of Food Safety and Land Policies in South Africa 32. Is Ghana Threatened with Disease from its Heavy Fish Consumption? 33. European Union Trade Regulations Influencing Food Production in Cote d'Ivoire 34. Shellfish on the Table not to Blame for Chronic Cough in Cote d'Ivoire Part 3: Annexes Annex 1. Project Partners from 2008 to 2011 Annex 2. List of Publications from the Safe Food, Fair Food Project