Practically all countries of Asia have pledged at the national as well as international level to reduce the number of hungry and food insecure. A concrete step in this direction was taken in the World Food Summit in Rome, in 1996, when the nations resolved to reach the goal of food security. It was further reiterated at the Millennium Summit held in New York in 2000 where the United Nations adopted the Millennium Declaration, which contains goals and targets in important areas of human development. One of these goals is to eradicate extreme poverty and hunger. This particular study aimed to examine the results of the efforts to achieve food security in Asian Countries in the context of Millennium Goals. Having adopted the basic premise that factors determining food security can be best understood at the country level, the study was based on country case studies: two least developed countries (Cambodia and Nepal), two medium-income countries undergoing fast structural changes (Indonesia and Thailand), and one large and fast developing country (India).