Forestry and Biodiversity: Learning How to Sustain Biodiversity in Managed Forests

Forestry and Biodiversity: Learning How to Sustain Biodiversity in Managed Forests

By: Glen B. Dunsworth (editor), Fred Bunnell (editor)Paperback

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Description

Sustainable management is a problem for countries that depend on natural resources. Forests contain most of the world's biodiversity and offer significant renewable resources with a potentially small ecological and carbon footprint. Yet the global demand for forest products has increased while the need to conserve biodiversity and endangered species has become more urgent and challenging. Sustainable management in the forestry sector is complicated by the size and slow growth of commercial forests. Forestry and Biodiversity makes the case for adaptive management - a structured approach to learning by doing - to sustain biodiversity in managed forests. It draws on the theory and principles of conservation biology and forest ecology and illustrates them, and the challenges they present, through a practical, real-world study of a 1.1 million hectare commercial operation in a coastal temperate rainforest. The authors present the results honestly - not everything worked as intended - the problems they encountered suggest where the boundaries of science stop and social choices must be made. Forestry and Biodiversity describes an innovate program for sustaining biodiversity in managed forests that will be of interest to those who plan, or hope to influence, forest practices and to those who are concerned with wildlife, climate change, and the environment.

About Author

Fred L. Bunnell is a professor emeritus of forestry and conservation biology at the University of British Columbia. Glen B. Dunsworth is a forest ecology and conservation biology consultant.

Contents

List of Illustrations Preface Acknowledgments Part 1: Introduction 1 The Problem / Fred L. Bunnell, Glen B. Dunsworth, David J. Huggard, and Laurie L. Kremsater 1.1 "Wicked" Problems 1.2 Expanding and Competing Values 1.3 Special Difficulties in Forests 1.4 Adaptive Management 1.5 Bounding the Book: What It Is and Is Not 1.6 Summary 2 The Example / Fred L. Bunnell, William J. Beese, and Glen B. Dunsworth 2.1 Physical and Ecological Setting 2.1.1 Physical Landscape 2.1.2 Climate, Vegetation, and Fauna 2.2 Social and Historical Contexts 2.3 New Planning and Practices 2.3.1 Planning 2.3.2 Practices 2.4 Structures to Make It Work 2.5 Monitoring 2.6 Summary 3 The Approach / Fred L. Bunnell and Glen B. Dunsworth 3.1 Managers' Questions 3.2 Establishing Objectives and Measures of Success 3.2.1 Defining Biological Diversity 3.2.2 A Criterion and Indicators of Success 3.3 Deciding on Actions 3.4 Evaluating Success 3.4.1 Bounding the Problem 3.4.2 The Major Questions 3.4.3 Kinds of Monitoring and Adaptive Management 3.4.4 Creating Structured Learning 3.5 Linking Findings to Actions 3.6 Summary 4 Implementing the Approach / Fred L. Bunnell, William J. Beese, and Glen B. Dunsworth 4.1 Change in Midstream 4.2 Progress in Adopting the Approach 4.2.1 Implementing Planning 4.2.2 Implementing Variable Retention 4.3 Assessing the Outcomes of Guidelines 4.3.1 Biological Legacies 4.3.2 Forest Influence 4.3.3 Amount of Retention 4.3.4 Forest Stewardship 4.3.5 Requisite Variety 4.4 Lessons from Implementation Monitoring 4.5 Summary Part 2: The Indicators 5 Effectiveness Monitoring: An Introduction / Fred L. Bunnell, David J. Huggard, and Glen B. Dunsworth 5.1 Context 5.2 How Do We Ask Our Questions? 5.3 What Would We Do with the Data if We Had Them? 5.4 How Do We Discern What Is Better? 5.5 Where Does the Answer Apply? 5.6 The Role of Pilot Studies 5.7 Summary 6 Ecosystem Representation: Sustaining Poorly Known Species and Functions / David J. Huggard and Laurie L. Kremsater 6.1 Rationale 6.2 What to Monitor 6.2.1 Amount of Non-Harvestable or Lightly Managed Area 6.2.2 Ecosystem Representation 6.2.3 Size of Non-Harvestable Patches and Geographic Distribution 6.2.4 Edge and Interior 6.2.5 Special Ecosystems and Productivity 6.2.6 Other Indices of Spatial Pattern 6.2.7 Natural Disturbances and Stand Age Distribution 6.2.8 Responsibility and Regional Protected Areas 6.3 How to Monitor 6.4 Anticipated Feedback to Management 6.5 Summary 7 Learning from Ecosystem Representation / David J. Huggard, Laurie L. Kremsater, and Glen B. Dunsworth 7.1 Context 7.2 Methods 7.2.1 Ecosystem Representation 7.2.2 Edge/Interior and Patch Size 7.2.3 Other Land Use Designations Emphasizing Conservation 7.2.4 Responsibility and Protected Areas 7.3 Results 7.3.1 Responsibility and Protected Areas 7.3.2 Representation of Variants in the Non-Harvestable Land Base 7.3.3 Representation of Site Series 7.3.4 Edge/Interior and Other Spatial Aspects 7.3.5 Representation in Other Conservation Designations 7.4 Discussion 7.4.1 Limitations of Analysis 7.4.2 Management Priorities: Under-Represented Dry Variants 7.4.3 Management Priorities: Edge Effects 7.4.4 Focusing Finer-Filter Monitoring 7.5 Summary 8 Sustaining Forested Habitat / David J. Huggard, Fred L. Bunnell, and Laurie L. Kremsater 8.1 Rationale 8.1.1 Habitat Elements in Stands 8.l.2 Habitat Structure in Stands 8.1.3 Landscape Features 8.2 What to Monitor 8.2.1 Standard Habitat Elements and Their Attributes 8.2.2 Integrative Habitat Variables 8.2.3 Process Variables for Long-Term Habitat Projections 8.2.4 Landscape Features 8.2.5 Hypothetical Species as Landscape Indices 8.3 How to Monitor 8.3.1 Standard Habitat Elements and Their Attributes 8.3.2 Integrative Habitat Variables (Habitat Structures) 8.3.3 Process Variables for Long-Term Habitat Projections 8.3.4 Landscape Features 8.3.5 Hypothetical Species for Landscape Evaluation 8.4 Anticipated Feedback to Management 8.5 Summary 9 Learning from Habitat Elements / David J. Huggard, Jeff Sandford, and Laurie L. Kremsater 9.1 Context 9.2 Methods 9.2.1 Field Methods 9.2.2 Subsampling Design 9.2.3 Study Design 9.2.4 Approach to Summaries 9.3 Results and Implications 9.3.1 Expected Precision 9.3.2 Comparison among Retention Types 9.3.3 Comparison of Retention Patches with Uncut Benchmarks 9.3.4 Relationships of Habitat Elements with Percent Retention 9.3.5 Edge Effects 9.3.6 Comparison of Patch Anchor Types 9.3.7 Operational Progress 9.4 General Discussion 9.5 Summary 10 Sustaining Forest-Dwelling Species / Laurie L. Kremsater and Fred L. Bunnell 10.1 Rationale 10.2 What to Monitor? An Overview 10.3 What to Monitor: Vascular Plants 10.3.1 Factors Influencing Monitoring: Vascular Plants 10.3.2 How to Monitor: Vascular Plants 10.3.3 Links to Management: Vascular Plants 10.4 What to Monitor: Bryophytes 10.4.1 Factors Influencing Monitoring: Bryophytes 10.4.2 How to Monitor: Bryophytes 10.4.3 Links to Management: Bryophytes 10.5 What to Monitor: Lichens 10.5.1 Factors Influencing Monitoring: Lichens 10.5.2 How to Monitor: Lichens 10.5.3 Links to Management: Lichens 10.6 What to Monitor: Fungi 10.6.1 Factors Influencing Monitoring: Fungi 10.6.2 How to Monitor: Fungi 10.6.3 Links to Management: Fungi 10.7 What to Monitor: Invertebrates 10.7.1 Factors Influencing Monitoring: Invertebrates 10.7.2 How to Monitor: Invertebrates 10.7.3 Links to Management: Invertebrates 10.8 What to Monitor: Vertebrates 10.8.1 Factors Influencing Monitoring: Vertebrates 10.8.2 What to Monitor: Vertebrates 10.8.3 Links to Management: Vertebrates 10.9 Overall Feedback to Management 10.10 Summary 11 Learning from Organisms / David J. Huggard and Laurie L. Kremsater 11.1 Context 11.2 Intended Roles of the Pilot Study Phase 11.2.1 Assess Sensitivity to Forest Practices 11.2.2 Define Ecological Strata 11.2.3 Define Appropriate Sampling Methods 11.2.4 Guide Optimization of Sampling 11.2.5 Illustrate Ways to Generalize 11.2.6 Summary of the Pilot Phase 11.3 Individual Monitoring Projects 11.3.1 Breeding Bird Surveys 11.3.2 Songbirds 11.3.3 Owls 11.3.4 Red Squirrels 11.3.5 Carabid (Ground) Beetles 11.3.6 Gastropods 11.3.7 Bryophytes and Vascular Plants 11.3.8 Epiphytic Lichens 11.3.9 Ectomycorrhizal Fungi 11.3.10 Aquatic-Breeding Amphibians 11.4 Summary Part 3: Summary 12 Designing a Monitoring Program / David J. Huggard, Laurie L. Kremsater, and Fred L. Bunnell 12.1 Context 12.2 How to Ask Questions 12.2.1 Comparisons and Mechanisms 12.2.2 Types of Comparisons 12.3 Stand-Level Comparisons 12.3.1 Very High-Priority Comparisons 12.3.2 High-Priority Comparisons 12.3.3 Moderate-Priority Comparisons 12.3.4 Low-Priority Comparisons 12.3.5 Summary of Comparisons 12.4 Selecting Indicator Variables 12.5 Matching Indicators with Comparisons 12.6 Answering Questions Well 12.6.1 Operational versus Experimental Comparisons 12.6.2 Blocking Factors 12.6.3 Pre-Treatment Measurement 12.7 Monitoring over Larger Areas 12.7.1 Indicator 1: Representation of Ecosystem Types in Non-Harvestable Areas 12.7.2 Indicator 2: Stand and Landscape Features 12.7.3 Indicator 3: Organisms 12.7.4 Other Possible Ecological Variables for Broad-Scale Monitoring 12.8 The Role of Models 12.8.1 General Modelling Approach 12.8.2 Specific Forms of Modelling 12.8.3 Implications of Incorporating Mechanisms 12.9 Summary 13 Summary: Progress and Lessons Learned / Fred L. Bunnell, David J. Huggard, and Laurie L. Kremsater 13.1 Context 13.2 Progress 13.3 Lessons Learned 13.3.1 Organizational Structure 13.3.2 Design 13.3.3 Feedback 13.4 Summary Thoughts Appendices Notes Glossary Literature Cited List of Contributors Index

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780774815307
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 374
  • ID: 9780774815307
  • weight: 560
  • ISBN10: 0774815302

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