An examination of the political economy of agricultural development in Iran during the oil-boom period of the 1960s and 1970s. The author focuses on two interdependent aspects of agricultural development: structural changes in property and labour relations, and productive efficiency and growth of output. Basing her approach on a consideration of the political, social and historical contexts of change, the author shows how developments in the agricultural sector affected the broader society. The period under study is initially marked by the consolidation and enhancement of the power of the monarchy, and ends with its downfall in 1979. Moghadam argues that structural changes in property and labour relations in the agricultural sector help account for the revolution and for the active role of the "ulamar" in it.