Fuel Cells: Data, Facts, and Figures

Fuel Cells: Data, Facts, and Figures

By: Detlef Stolten (editor), Nancy Garland (editor), Remzi C. Samsun (editor)Hardback

Up to 2 WeeksUsually despatched within 2 weeks

£108.00 RRP £120.00  You save £12.00 (10%) With FREE Saver Delivery

Description

This ready reference is unique in collating in one scientifically precise and comprehensive handbook the widespread data on what is feasible and realistic in modern fuel cell technology. Edited by one of the leading scientists in this exciting area, the short, uniformly written chapters provide economic data for cost considerations and a full overview of demonstration data, covering such topics as fuel cells for transportation, fuel provision, codes and standards. The result is highly reliable facts and figures for engineers, researchers and decision makers working in the field of fuel cells.

About Author

Prof. Detlef Stolten is the Director of the Institute of Energy Research - Fuel Cells at the Research Center Juelich, Germany. Prof Stolten received his doctorate from the University of Technology at Clausthal, Germany. He served many years as a Research Scientist in the laboratories of Robert Bosch and Daimler Benz/Dornier. Since 1998 he has been holding the position of Director at the Research Center Juelich. Two years later he became Professor for Fuel Cell Technology at the University of Technology (RWTH) at Aachen. Prof. Stolten's research focuses on electrochemical energy engineering including electrochemistry and energy process engineering of Electrolysis, SOFC and PEFC systems, i.e. cell and stack technology, process and systems engineering as well as systems analysis. Prof. Stolten is Chairman of the Implementing Agreement Advanced Fuel Cells, member of the board of the International Association of Hydrogen Energy (IAHE) and is on the advisory boards of the German National Organization of Hydrogen and Fuel Cells (NOW), and the journal Fuel Cells. He was chairman of the World Hydrogen Energy Conference 2010 (WHEC 2010). Dr. Renzi Can Samsun is the head of Group Systems Technology for on-board power supply at the Institute of Energy and Climate Research at the Juelich Research Center. His research fields are high-temperature polymer electrolyte fuel cell systems, fuel processing systems for fuel cells and modelling of energy systems. Nancy Garland is a Technology Development Manager in the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Fuel Cell Technologies. She is responsible for managing National Laboratory R&D activities in fuel cells, including membranes, catalysts, MEAs, as well as characterization and analysis. She led a High Temperature Membrane Working Group with ~ 60 participants from academia, industry, and DOE National Laboratories. Prior to coming to DOE, she was a Research Chemist at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory where she carried out experimental studies on chemical kinetics and dynamics. Dr. Garland is a member of the American Chemical Society and the Combustion Institute.

Contents

Preface XV Part I Transportation 1 I-1 Propulsion 1 I-1.1 Benchmarks and Definition of Criteria 1 1 Battery Electric Vehicles 3 Bruno Gnorich and Lutz Eckstein References 11 2 Passenger Car Drive Cycles 12 Thomas Grube 2.1 Introduction 12 2.2 Drive Cycles for Passenger Car Type Approval 13 2.3 Drive Cycles from Research Projects 14 2.4 Drive Cycle Characteristics 14 2.5 Graphic Representation of Selected Drive Cycles 16 2.6 Conclusion 21 References 21 3 Hydrogen Fuel Quality 22 James M. Ohi 3.1 Introduction 22 3.2 Hydrogen Fuel 23 3.3 Fuel Quality Effects 25 3.4 Fuel Quality for Fuel Cell Vehicles 25 3.5 Single Cell Tests 26 3.6 Field Data 26 3.7 Fuel Quality Verification 27 3.8 Conclusion 28 References 29 4 Fuel Consumption 30 Amgad Elgowainy and Erika Sutherland 4.1 Introduction 30 4.2 Hydrogen Production 31 4.3 Hydrogen Packaging 31 4.4 Hydrogen Consumption in FCEVs 32 4.5 Conclusion 34 References 34 I-1.2 Demonstration 37 I-1.2.1 Passenger Cars 37 5 Global Development Status of Fuel Cell Vehicles 39 Remzi Can Samsun 5.1 Introduction 39 5.2 Update on Recent Activities of Car Manufacturers 40 5.3 Key Data and Results from Demonstration Programs 41 5.4 Technical Data of Fuel Cell Vehicles 47 5.4.1 Daimler 47 5.4.2 Ford 47 5.4.3 GM/Opel 50 5.4.4 Honda 51 5.4.5 Hyundai/Kia 51 5.4.6 Nissan 52 5.4.7 Toyota 53 5.4.8 Volkswagen 55 5.5 Conclusions 57 References 58 6 Transportation China Passenger Cars 61 Yingru Zhao 6.1 Introduction 61 6.2 National R&D Strategy (2011 2015) 62 6.3 Government Policy 63 6.4 Published Technical Standards 63 6.5 Demonstrations 65 6.6 Commercialization Case of SAIC Motor 67 6.7 Conclusions 67 References 68 7 Results of Country Specific Program Korea 69 Tae-Hoon Lim 7.1 Introduction 69 7.2 FCV Demonstration Program 70 VI Contents 7.2.1 The 1st Phase of the FCV Demonstration Project 70 7.2.2 The 2nd Phase of the FCV Demonstration Project 70 7.3 Summary 72 8 GM HydroGen4 A Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle based on the Chevrolet Equinox 75 Ulrich Eberle and Rittmar von Helmolt 8.1 Introduction 75 8.2 Technology 76 8.3 Conclusions 84 Acknowledgments 85 References 86 I-1.2.2 Buses 87 9 Results of Country Specific Programs USA 89 Leslie Eudy 9.1 Introduction 89 9.2 FCEB Descriptions 90 9.3 SunLine Advanced Technology Fuel Cell Electric Bus 90 9.3.1 Fuel Economy 91 9.3.2 Availability 92 9.4 Zero Emission Bay Area Program 92 9.4.1 Fuel Economy 94 9.4.2 Availability 94 9.5 SunLine American Fuel Cell Bus 95 9.5.1 Fuel Economy 96 9.5.2 Availability 97 9.6 Conclusion 98 References 98 I-1.3 PEM fuel cells 99 10 Polymer Electrolytes 101 John Kopasz and Cortney Mittelsteadt 10.1 Introduction 101 10.2 Membrane Properties 102 10.2.1 Water uptake and Swelling 102 10.2.2 Protonic Conductivity 103 10.2.3 Permeability 104 10.2.4 Membrane Mechanical Properties and Durability 107 10.3 Conclusions 108 References 108 11 MEAs for PEM Fuel Cells 110 Andrew J. Steinbach and Mark K. Debe 11.1 Introduction 110 11.2 MEA Basic Components (PEMs, Catalysts, GDLs and Gaskets) 111 11.3 MEA Performance, Durability, and Cost Targets for Transportation 112 11.4 MEA Robustness and Sensitivity to External Factors 115 11.5 Technology Gaps 117 11.6 Conclusion 118 References 118 12 Gas Diffusion Layer 121 Sehkyu Park 12.1 Introduction 121 12.2 Macroporous Substrate 122 12.3 Microporous Layer 123 12.4 Characterization of GDL 124 12.5 Conclusion 126 References 127 13 Materials for PEMFC Bipolar Plates 128 Heli Wang and John A. Turner 13.1 Introduction 128 13.2 Composite BP Materials 130 13.3 Metallic BP Materials 131 13.3.1 Light Alloys 131 13.3.2 Stainless Steel Bipolar Plates 132 13.3.2.1 Metal-Based Coatings 132 13.3.2.2 Carbon/Polymer-Based Coatings 133 13.3.3 Remarks 133 Acknowledgments 133 References 133 14 Single Cell for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cells (PEMFCs) 135 Hyoung-Juhn Kim 14.1 Introduction 135 14.2 Main Components of a Single Cell for a PEMFC 136 14.3 Assembly of a Single Cell 137 14.4 Measurement of a Single Cell Performance 138 14.5 Conclusions 139 References 139 I-1.4 Hydrogen 141 I-1.4.1 On board storage 141 15 Pressurized System 143 Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua 15.1 Introduction 143 15.2 High Pressure Storage System 144 15.3 Cost 147 15.4 Conclusions 148 References 148 16 Metal Hydrides 149 Vitalie Stavila and Lennie Klebanoff 16.1 Metal Hydrides as Hydrogen Storage Media 149 16.2 Classes of Metal Hydrides 152 16.2.1 Interstitial Metal Hydrides 152 16.2.2 Magnesium and Magnesium-Based Alloys 153 16.2.3 Complex Metal Hydrides 154 16.2.3.1 Off-Board Reversible Metal Hydrides 157 16.3 How Metal Hydrides Could Be Improved 157 References 160 17 Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen Storage 162 Tobias Brunner, Markus Kampitsch, and Oliver Kircher 17.1 Introduction 162 17.2 Thermodynamic Principles 163 17.3 System Design and Operating Principles 167 17.4 Validation and Safety 169 17.5 Summary 172 References 173 I-1.4.2 On board safety 175 18 On-Board Safety 177 Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua 18.1 Introduction 177 18.2 High Pressure Fuel Container System 179 18.3 Hydrogen Refueling Requirements and Safety 180 18.4 Conclusions 182 References 182 I-2 Auxiliary power units (APU) 183 19 Fuels for APU Applications 185 Remzi Can Samsun 19.1 Introduction 185 19.2 Diesel Fuel 186 19.2.1 Petroleum-Based Diesel Fuels 186 19.2.2 Non-Petroleum-Based Diesel Fuels 187 19.3 Jet Fuel 189 19.3.1 Petroleum-Based Jet Fuels 189 19.3.2 Non-Petroleum-Based Jet Fuels 190 19.4 Other Fuels 190 19.4.1 Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) 190 19.4.2 Methanol 192 19.5 Conclusion 195 References 195 20 Application Requirements/Targets for Fuel Cell APUs 197 Jacob S. Spendelow and Dimitrios C. Papageorgopoulos 20.1 Introduction 197 20.2 DOE Technical Targets 198 20.2.1 Status and Targets of Fuel Cell APUs 198 20.2.2 Target Justification 198 20.2.2.1 Electrical Efficiency at Rated Power 199 20.2.2.2 Power Density 199 20.2.2.3 Specific Power 199 20.2.2.4 Factory Cost 200 20.2.2.5 Transient Response 200 20.2.2.6 Startup Time 200 20.2.2.7 Degradation with Cycling 200 20.2.2.8 Operating Lifetime 200 20.2.2.9 System Availability 201 References 201 21 Fuel Cells for Marine Applications 202 Keno Leites 21.1 Introduction 202 21.2 Possible Fuel Cell Systems for Ships 204 21.3 Maritime Fuel Cell Projects 205 21.4 Development Goals for Future Systems 206 21.5 Conclusions 206 References 207 22 Reforming Technologies for APUs 208 Ralf Peters 22.1 Introduction 208 22.2 Guideline 208 22.2.1 Chemical Reactions 208 22.2.2 Aspects of System Design 210 22.2.3 Catalysts in Fuel Processing 211 22.2.4 Reactor Development of Fuel Processing 213 22.2.5 Further Data Sets of Interest 219 22.2.6 Other Fuels 219 Appendix 22.A 220 Abbreviation 220 List of Symbols 221 Definitions 221 References 222 23 PEFC Systems for APU Applications 225 Remzi Can Samsun 23.1 Introduction 225 23.2 PEFC Operation with Reformate 226 23.3 Application Concepts 229 23.4 System Design 230 23.5 System Efficiency 232 23.6 System Test 232 23.7 Conclusion 233 References 233 24 High Temperature Polymer Electrolyte Fuel Cells 235 Werner Lehnert, Lukas Luke, and Remzi Can Samsun 24.1 Introduction 235 24.2 Operating Behavior of Cells and Stacks 236 24.3 System Level 240 References 246 25 Fuel Cell Systems for APU. SOFC: Cell, Stack, and Systems 248 Niels Christiansen References 255 Part II Stationary 257 26 Deployment and Capacity Trends for Stationary Fuel Cell Systems in the USA 259 Max Wei, Shuk Han Chan, Ahmad Mayyas, and Tim Lipman 26.1 Fuel-Cell Backup Systems 260 26.2 Fuel-Cell Combined Heat and Power and Electricity 262 References 269 27 Specific Country Reports: Japan 270 Tomio Omata 27.1 Introduction 270 27.2 Start of the Sales of Residential Fuel Cell Systems 271 27.3 Market Growth of the Ene-Farm 272 27.4 Technical Development of the Ene-Farm 272 27.4.1 SOFC-type Ene-Farm and Improvement of Performance 272 27.4.2 The Ene-Farm as an Emergency Electric Supply System 273 27.4.3 Ene-Farms for Nitrogen Rich City Gas 274 27.5 Sales of the Ene-Farm for Condominiums 274 27.6 Conclusions 274 References 275 28 Backup Power Systems 276 Shanna Knights 28.1 Introduction 276 28.2 Application and Power Levels 277 28.3 Advantages 277 28.4 Fuel Choice 278 28.5 Product Parameters 279 28.6 Economics 280 28.7 Conclusion 280 References 280 29 Stationary Fuel Cells Residential Applications 282 Iain Staffell 29.1 Introduction 282 29.2 Key Characteristics 283 29.2.1 Residential Energy Sector 283 29.2.2 Residential Fuel Cell Systems 283 29.3 Technical Performance 284 29.3.1 Efficiency 284 29.3.2 Degradation 285 29.3.3 Lifetime 286 29.3.4 Emissions 287 29.4 Economic and Market Status 288 29.4.1 Capital Costs 288 29.4.2 Sales Volumes 290 29.5 Conclusions 290 References 290 30 Fuels for Stationary Applications 293 Stephen J. McPhail 30.1 Introduction 293 30.2 Natural Gas 294 30.3 Biogas, Landfill Gas, and Biomethane 296 30.4 (Bio)ethanol 298 30.5 Hydrogen 300 References 302 31 SOFC: Cell, Stack and System Level 304 Anke Hagen 31.1 Introduction 304 31.2 Cell Concepts and Materials 305 31.3 Cell Designs 307 31.4 Stack Concepts 310 31.5 Stationary Systems 310 31.6 Performance and Durability Parameters 313 References 319 Part III Materials handling 321 32 Fuel Cell Forklift Systems 323 Martin Muller 32.1 Introduction 323 32.2 Forklift Classification 324 32.3 Load Profile of Horizontal Order Pickers 324 32.4 Energy Supply for Forklifts 326 32.5 Systems Setup and Hybridization 326 32.6 Cost Comparison of Different Propulsion Systems for Forklifts 328 References 332 33 Fuel Cell Forklift Deployment in the USA 334 Ahmad Mayyas, Max Wei, Shuk Han Chan, and Tim Lipman 33.1 Fuel Cell-Powered Material Handling Equipment 334 References 340 Part IV Fuel provision 343 34 Proton Exchange Membrane Water Electrolysis 345 Antonino S. Arico, Vincenzo Baglio, Nicola Briguglio, Gaetano Maggio, and Stefania Siracusano 34.1 Introduction 345 34.2 Bibliographic Analysis of PEM Electrolysis versus Water Electrolysis 346 34.3 Electrocatalysts Used in PEM Water Electrolysis 347 34.4 Anode Supports for PEM Water Electrolysis 349 34.5 Membranes for PEM Electrolysis 349 34.6 Stack and System Costs in PEM Electrolysis 351 34.7 PEM Electrolysis Systems in Comparison with Competing Technologies 352 References 354 35 Power-to-Gas 357 Gerda Reiter 35.1 Introduction 357 35.2 Main Components and Process Steps 358 35.2.1 Water Electrolysis 358 35.2.2 CH4 Synthesis 360 35.2.3 CO2 Separation 361 35.3 Transport and Application of H2 and CH4 363 35.4 Current Developments: Pilot Plants 365 35.5 Conclusion 366 References 366 Part V Codes and standards 369 36 Hydrogen Safety and RCS (Regulations, Codes, and Standards) 371 Andrei V. Tchouvelev 36.1 Introduction 371 36.2 Hydrogen Safety 372 36.2.1 Flammability Limits and Ignition Energy 372 36.2.1.1 Unique Hydrogen Flammability Limits 372 36.2.1.2 Hydrogen Ignition Energy 372 36.2.2 Materials Compatibility 374 36.2.2.1 Hydrogen Embrittlement 374 36.2.2.2 Materials Suitability for Hydrogen Service 375 36.3 Hydrogen Regulations, Codes, and Standards (RCS) International Activities 376 36.3.1 ISO/TC 197 Hydrogen Technologies 376 36.3.2 CEN and European Commission 376 36.3.3 HySafe and IEA HIA Hydrogen Safety Activities 377 36.4 Conclusions 377 Acknowledgments 377 References 378 Index 379

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9783527332403
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 408
  • ID: 9783527332403
  • weight: 1008
  • ISBN10: 3527332405

Delivery Information

  • Saver Delivery: Yes
  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
  • Courier Delivery: Yes
  • Store Delivery: Yes

Prices are for internet purchases only. Prices and availability in WHSmith Stores may vary significantly

Close