Functional Biochemistry in Health and Disease provides aclear and straightforward account of the biochemistry that isnecessary to understand the physiological functions of tissues ororgans essential to the life of human beings. Focusing on thedynamic aspects of biochemistry and its application to the basicfunctions of the body, the book bridges the gap betweenbiochemistry and medical practice. Carefully structured within five sections, each biochemical,physiological or medical subject that is covered in the book ispresented in one complete chapter. Consequently, each subject canbe read and studied in isolation although cross-sectional linksbetween the subjects are included where necessary. Backgroundmaterial, both biochemical and medical, that is necessary for anunderstanding of the subject, is included at the start of eachchapter and clear, relevant diagrams enhance students'understanding. * Focuses on medically relevant aspects of biochemistry writtenfrom a physiological rather than a chemical perspective. * Clear presentation that minimises the use of jargon. * Each chapter contains boxes on related topics, relevantdiagrams and a brief glossary.
* Coverage includes athletic performance, apoptosis and theimmune system. * Key historical developments are included to show how modernbiochemistry has evolved. By linking biochemistry, medical education and clinical practicethis book will prove invaluable to students in medical and healthsciences, biomedical science and human biology taking anintroductory biochemistry course. In addition it will appeal tobiochemistry and biology students interested in clinicalapplications of biochemistry.
Preface. Abbreviations. I INTRODUCTION. 1 The Structural and Biochemical Hierarchy of a Cell and aHuman. Cell structure. Tissues. The whole human. The biochemical hierarchy. II ESSENTIAL TOPICS IN DYNAMIC BIOCHEMISTRY. 2 Energy: In the Body, Tissues and BiochemicalProcesses. Energy transformations in the whole body. Energy transformations in tissues and organs. Energy transformation in biochemical reactions and pathways. Adenosine triphosphate: its role in the cell. 3 Enzymes: Activities, Properties, Regulation andPhysiology. Nomenclature and classification. Basic facts. Mechanisms by which an enzyme enhances the rate of areaction. Cofactors and prosthetic groups. Factors that change the activity of an enzyme. Allosteric inhibition. The physiological significance of Km and Vmaxvalues. Enzymes as tools. Enzymes in diagnosis. Enzymes as therapeutic agents. Enzymes as targets for therapy. Kinetic structure of a biochemical pathway. Regulation of enzyme activity. 4 Transport into the Body: The Gastrointestinal Tract,Digestion and Absorption. Gross structure of the gastrointestinal tract. Biochemistry of cooking and food preparation. Digestion and absorption. The gastrointestinal tract and disease. 5 Transport into the Cell: Particles, Molecules andIons. Structure of the plasma membrane. Diffusion through membranes. Active transport. Endocytosis and exocytosis. Physiological importance of some transport systems. III ESSENTIAL METABOLISM. 6 Carbohydrate Metabolism. Glycolysis. The biochemical and physiological importance of anaerobicglycolysis. Regulation of the flux through glycolysis. Glycogen synthesis. Synthesis of Fructose and lactose. The pentose phosphate pathway. Gluconeogenesis: glucose formation from non-carbohydratesources. Role of the liver in the regulation of the blood glucoseconcentration. Hormones and control of gluconeogenesis. Regulation of glycolysis and gluconeogenesis by ATP/ADPconcentration ratio in the liver. Hypoglycaemia. Hyperglycaemia. 7 Fat Metabolism. Fats in nutrition. Fat fuels. Physiological importance of fat fuels. Limitations or drawbacks of fats as a fuel. Genetic defects in fatty acid oxidation. Pathological concentrations of fat fuels. 8 Amino Acid and Protein Metabolism. Introduction. Sources of amino acids. Protein and amino acid requirements. Fate of amino acids. Central role of transdeamination. Amino acid metabolism in different tissues. Glutamine: an amino acid of central importance. Urea 'salvage'. 9 Oxidation of Fuels and ATP Generation: Physiological andClinical Importance. The Krebs cycle. The electron transfer chain. Oxidative phosphorylation. Coupling of electron transfer with oxidativephosphorylation. Transport into and out of mitochondria. Energy transport in the cytosol: thecreatine/phosphocreatine shuttle. Regulation of fluxes. The physiological importance of mitochondrial ATPgeneration. The effect of ageing on ATP generation. 10 Metabolism of Ammonia and Nucleic Acids. Roles of ammonia. Urea synthesis. Degradation of nucleic acids, nucleotides, nucleosides andbases: the generation of ammonia. Ammonia toxicity. Deficiencies of urea cycle enzymes. 11 Synthesis of Fatty Acids, Triacylglycerol, Phospholipidsand Fatty Messengers: The Roles of Polyunsaturated FattyAcids. Synthesis of long-chain fatty acids. Unsaturated fatty acids. Essential fatty acids. Phospholipids. Fatty messenger molecules. Fatty acids in neurological and behavioural disorders. 12 Hormones: From Action in the Cell to Function in theBody. Endocrine hormones: traditional and novel. The action, effects and functions of a hormone. Action of hormones. The biochemical and physiological effects of a hormone. Pheromones. Kinetic principles that apply to hormone action. IV ESSENTIAL PROCESSES OF LIFE. 13 Physical Activity: In Non-Athletes, Athletes andPatients. The mechanical basis of movement by skeletal muscle. Structure of muscle. Proteins involved in muscle action. Mechanism of contraction: the cross-bridge cycle. Regulation of contraction. Fuels for muscle. Fuels for various athletic events and games. Fatigue. Fatigue in patients. Physical training. Development of muscle. Health benefits of physical activity. Health hazards of physical activity. Skeletal muscle diseases. 14 Mental Activity and Mental Illness. Mental activity. Cells in the brain. Electrical communication. Chemical communication. Fuels and energy metabolism in the brain. Mental illnesses: biochemical causes. Recreational drugs. 15 Nutrition: Biochemistry, Physiology and Pathology. Basic information required for discussion of some biochemicalaspects of nutrition. Vitamins. Minerals. A healthy diet. Nutrition for specific activities or conditions. Overnutrition. Malnutrition. Functional foods and nutraceuticals. Nutrition for patients with genetic disorders. Vegetarian diets. Eating disorders. 16 Starvation: Metabolic Changes, Survival and Death. Mechanisms for the regulation of the blood glucoseconcentration. Metabolic responses to starvation. Sequence of metabolic changes from intermediate starvation todeath. Progressive decrease in protein degradation in starvation. 17 Defence Against Pathogens: Barriers, Enzymes and theImmune System. When the physical barrier is breached. The immune system. Adaptive immunity. Cytokines. Mechanisms for killing pathogens. Killing of intracellular bacteria and large parasites in theextracellular fluid. Allergy. Fuels and generation of ATP in immune cells: consequences for apatient. Essential fatty acids and proliferation. The lymph nodes. Tolerance. Chronic inflammation and autoimmunity. Immunosuppressive agents. Conditions that reduce the effectiveness of the immunesystem. Factors that increase the effectiveness of the immunesystem. Return of the old infectious diseases. New infectious diseases. Defence in the intestine. 18 Survival after Trauma: Metabolic Changes and Response ofthe Immune System. Physiological and metabolie responses the ebb & fl owphases. Nutrition. Mobilisation of triacylglycerol and protein in trauma. Metabolic changes in trauma and in starvation. Fever. Summary of the effects of trauma on the immune system and thewhole body. 19 Sexual Reproduction. Male reproductive system. Female reproductive system. The menstrual cycle. Ovulation. Chemical communication in male and female reproduction. Coitus and the sexual response in the male and female. Fertilisation. Pregnancy. Parturition. Contraception. The menopause. Sexually transmitted diseases. 20 Growth and Death of Cells and Humans: The Cell Cycle,Apoptosis and Necrosis. Introduction to cell proliferation. The cell cycle. Death. V SERIOUS DISEASES. 21 Cancer: Genes, Cachexia and Death. Basic information. Oncogenes and proto-oncogenes. Proteins expressed by oncogenes. Processes by which proto-oncogenes can be activated or convertedto oncogenes. Tumour suppressor genes. Telomeres and telomerase in tumour cells. Metastasis. Metabolic changes in cancer patients. Overview of cancer. Cancer-causing agents or conditions. Chemotherapy. Radiotherapy. 22 Atherosclerosis, Hypertension and Heart Attack. Atherosclerosis. Hypertension. Heart attack (myocardial infarction). Index.