A comprehensive and up-to-date overview of the major mineral and organic fillers for plastics, their production, structure and properties, as well as their applications in terms of primary and secondary functions. Edited and co-authored by Professor Marino Xanthos with contributions by international experts from industry and academia, this book presents methods of mixing/incorporation technologies, surface treatments and modifications for enhanced functionality, an analysis of parameters affecting filler performance and a presentation of current and emerging applications. Additionally, the novel classification according to modification of specific polymer properties rather than filler chemical composition provides a better understanding of the relationships between processing, structure and properties of products containing functional fillers and the identification of new markets and applications. For engineers, scientists and technologists involved in the important sector of polymer composites.
Marino Xanthos is Professor in the Department of Chemical, Biological and Pharmaceutical Engineering at the NJ Institute of Technology (NJIT), Newark, New Jersey since 1995 and served from 1987 to 2005 as Director of Research of the Polymer Processing Institute (PPI), an independent non-profit research organization located at NJIT. He received his PhD and his MD degrees in Chemical Engineering from the University of Toronto and a BSc in Chemistry from the University of Thessaloniki, Greece. He has more than 30 years of academic and industrial experience in directing and conducting research on polymer composites, blends and foams, polymer modification and reactive polymer processing, and plastics-related environmental issues. He is editor/co-author of the books Functional Fillers for Plastics, Reactive Extrusion, and How to Manage Plastic Waste, author/co-author of more than 30 book chapters and 200 publications and holds nine US and Canadian Patents. He is also Executive Editor of the journal Advances in Polymer Technology since 1990, and a Fellow of the Society of Plastics Engineers (SPE).
Preface PART ONE: Polymers and Fillers POLYMERS AND POLYMER COMPOSITES Thermoplastics and Thermosets Processing of Thermoplastics and Thermosets Polymer Composites MODIFICATION OF POLYMER PROPERTIES WITH FUNCTIONAL FILLERS Introduction The Importance of the Interface Modification of Mechanical Properties Effects of Fillers on Processing Characteristics of Polymers MIXING OF FILLERS WITH PLASTICS Introduction Pretreatment of Fillers Feeding Melting Solids Introduction and Mixing Venting Pressure Generation Process Examples Further Information PART TWO: Surface Modifiers and Coupling Agents SILANE COUPLING AGENTS Introduction Production and Structures of Monomeric Silanes Silane Chemistry Types of Silanes Silane Hydrolysis Reactivity of Silanes Toward the Filler Combining Silanes and Mineral Fillers Insights into the Silylated Filler Surfaces Selection of Silanes Applications of Specific Silanes Trends and Developments TITANATE COUPLING AGENTS Introduction The Six Functions of the Titanate Molecule Summary and Conclusions FUNCTIONAL POLYMERS AND OTHER MODIFIERS Introduction General Types of Modifiers and Their Principal Effects Modifiers by Chemical Type PART THREE: Fillers and Their Functions A - High Aspect Ratio Fillers GLASS FIBERS Background Production Methods Structure and Properties Suppliers Cost/Availability Environmental/Toxicity Considerations Applications Environmental Impact MIKA FLAKES Background Production Methods Structure and Properties Suppliers Cost/Availability Environmental/Toxicity Considerations Applications NANOCLAYS AND THEIR EMERGING MARKETS Introduction Production Methods Structure and Properties Suppliers Cost/Availability Environmental/Toxicity Considerations Applications CARBON NANOTUBES/NANOFIBERS AND CARBON FIBERS Introduction Materials Polymer Matrix Composites Cost/Availability Environmental/Toxicity Considerations Applications B ? Low Aspect Ratio Fillers NATURAL FIBERS Introduction Structure and Production Methods Properties Suppliers Cost/Availability Environmental/Toxicity Considerations Applications (Primary and Secondary Functions) TALC Production Methods Structure and Properties Suppliers Cost/Availability Environmental/Toxicity Considerations Applications KAOLIN Introduction Production Methods Properties Suppliers Cost/Availability Environmental/Toxicity Considerations Applications WOLLASTONITE Introduction Production Structure and Properties Suppliers/Cost Environmental/Toxicity Considerations Applications Involving the Plastics Compounding Industry Summary Future Considerations for Use of Wollastonite in Plastics WOOD FLOUR Introduction Production Methods Structure and Properties Suppliers Cost/Availability Environmental/Toxicity Considerations Applications (Primary and Secondary Functions) CALCIUM CARBONATE Background Production Methods Structure and Properties Suppliers Cost/Availability Environmental, Toxicity, and Sustainability Considerations Applications C ? Specialty Fillers FIRE RETARDANTS Introduction Combustion of Polymers and the Combustion Cycle Fuel Smoke Flammability of Polymers Mechanisms of Fire-Retardant Action Classification of Flame Retardants Tools and Testing Toxicity Manufacturers of Fire Retardants Concluding Remarks CONDUCTIVE AND MAGNETIC FILLERS Introduction Carbon Black Phenomena of Conductivity in Carbon Black-Filled Polymers Distribution and Dispersion of Carbon Black in Polymers Other Carbon-Based Conductive Fillers Intrinsically Conductive Polymers (ICPs) Metal Particle Composites Magnetic Fillers Concluding Remarks Appendix: Measurement of Resistivity SURFACE PROPERTY MODIFIERS Introduction Solid Lubricants/Tribological Additives Antiblocking Fillers PROCESSING AIDS Introduction Production Structure/Properties Suppliers/Manufacturers Environmental/Toxicity Considerations Applications SPHERICAL FILLERS Organic Spherical Fillers Glass and Ceramic Spheres BIOACTIVE FILLERS Introduction Bone as a Biocomposite Synthetic Biomedical Composites and Their Bioactivity Bioceramics as Functional Fillers Modification of Bioceramic Fillers Fillers Formed In Situ Recent Developments ? Nanostructured Bioactive Fillers Concluding Remarks POLYHEDRAL OLILGOMERIC SILSEQUIOXANES Introduction Production Structure and Properties Suppliers/Cost Environmental/Safety Considerations Functions IN SITU-GENERATED FILLERS: BICONTINUOUS PHASE NANOCOMPOSITES Introduction Methodology for the Production of Bicontinuous Nanocomposites General Properties of Bicontinuous Phase Nanocomposites Potential Applications of Bicontinuous Nanocomposites