Membranes have emerged over the last 30 years as a viable water treatment technology. Earth's population is growing and the need for alternative ways to generate potable water is rising. The recent advent of nanotechnology opens the door to improving processes in membrane technology, which is a promising step on the way to solving the earth's potable water problem. Current performance is enhanced and new concepts are possible by engineering on the nanoscale. This book presents key areas of nanotechnology such as fouling tolerant and robust membranes, enhanced destruction of pollutants and faster monitoring of water quality. 'Functional Nanostructured Materials and Membranes for Water Treatment' is part of the series on Materials for Sustainable Energy and Development edited by Prof. G.Q. Max Lu. The series covers advances in materials science and innovation for renewable energy, clean use of fossil energy, and greenhouse gas mitigation and associated environmental technologies.
Prof Mikel Duke has worked in membrane research for almost 10 years and has 36 peer-review publications in this field. He received his BE and PhD degree from the University of Queensland in environmental and chemical engineering and has worked at the Australian Research Council Centre of Excellence for Functional Nanomaterials and Arizona State University since then. His focus is on development of ceramic membranes that operate at the molecular level by optimizing functional material parameters. He is the recipient of a prestigious Endeavour Executive Award and the founding chair of the Membrane Society of Australasia. Professor Dongyuan Zhao is Cheung Kong Professor of the China Education Ministry, Vice Director of the Advanced Materials Laboratory at Fudan University and Visiting Professor at Monash University (Australia). He is an academician of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. With over 350 peer-reviewed papers earning > 20000 citations he is the 65th Most-Cited Scientist in Chemistry (according to ISI). His research interests are in the synthesis of porous materials and their application in catalysis, separation, photonics, sorption, environmental decontamination, sensors, etc. Prof. Raphael Semiat is the Yitzhak Rabin Memorial Chair in Science, Engineering and Management of Water Resources at Technion - Israel Institute of Technology. He has wide industrial experience in research and development of chemical processes. His current interests and activities are centered on water technologies, including desalination, chemical-environmental processes and use of nano particles for removal of organic matter and heavy metals from water. He has published more than 140 papers in scientific journals.
TARGET AREAS FOR NANOTECHNOLOGY DEVELOPMENT FOR WATER TREATMENT AND DESALINATION The Future of Water Treatment: Where Should We Target Our Efforts? Practical Considerations for Nanotechnology Developers The Water Treatment Market for New Nanotechnology Purpose of This Book Concluding Remarks DESTRUCTION OF ORGANICS IN WATER VIA IRON NANOPARTICLES Introduction Nanoparticles as Catalysts Advanced Oxidation Processes Nano Zero-Valent Iron (nZVI) Bimetallic nZVI Nanoparticles Summary PHOTOCATALYSIS AT NANOSTRUCTURED TITANIA FOR SENSING APPLICATIONS Background Fabrication of TiO2 Photoanodes The Sensing Application of TiO2 Photocatalysis The Sensing Application of TiO2 Photoelectrocatalysis Photocatalytic Gas Sensing Conclusions MESOPOROUS MATERIALS FOR WATER TREATMENT Adsorption of Heavy Metal Ions Adsorption of Anions Adsorption of Organic Pollutants Multifunctional Modification of Sorbents Photocatalytic Degradation of Organic Pollutants Conclusions and Outlook MEMBRANE SURFACE NANOSTRUCTURING WITH TERMINALLY ANCHORED POLYMER CHAINS Introduction Membrane Fouling Strategies for Mitigation of Membrane Fouling and Scaling Membrane Surface Structuring via Graft Polymerization Summary RECENT ADVANCES IN ION EXCHANGE MEMBRANES FOR DESALINATION APPLICATIONS Introduction Fundamentals of IEMs and Their Transport Phenomena Material Development Future Perspectives of IEMs Conclusions THIN FILM NANOCOMPOSITE MEMBRANES FOR WATER DESALINATION Introduction Fabrication and Characterization of Inorganic Fillers Fabrication and Characterization of TFC/TFN Membranes Membrane Properties Tailored by the Addition of Fillers Commercialization and Future Developments of TFN Membranes Summary APPLICATION OF CERAMIC MEMBRANES IN THE TREATMENT OF WATER Introduction Membrane Preparation Clarification of Surface Water and Seawater Using Ceramic Membranes Ceramic Membrane Application in the Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration of Wastewater Conclusions and Prospects FUNCTIONAL ZEOLITIC FRAMEWORK MEMBRANES FOR WATER TREATMENT AND DESALINATION Introduction Preparation of Zeolite Membranes Zeolite Membranes for Water Treatment Conclusions and Future Perspectives MOLECULAR SCALE MODELING OF MEMBRANE WATER TREATMENT PROCESSES Introduction Molecular Simulations of Polymeric Membrane Materials for Water Treatment Applications Molecular Simulation of Inorganic Desalination Membranes Molecular Simulation of Membrane Fouling CONCLUSIONS: SOME POTENTIAL FUTURE NANOTECHNOLOGIES FOR WATER TREATMENT Nanotubes Graphene Aquaporins Metal-Organic, Zeolitic Imidazolate, and Polymer Organic Frameworks Conclusions INDEX