Polymers are an important part in everyday life; products made from polymers range from sophisticated articles, such as biomaterials, to aerospace materials. One of the reasons for the great popularity exhibited by polymers is their ease of processing. Polymer properties can be tailored to meet specific needs by varying the "atomic composition" of the repeat structure, by varying molecular weight and by the incorporation (via covalent and non-covalent interactions) of an enormous range of compounds to impart specific activities. In food science, the use of polymeric materials is widely explored, from both an engineering and a nutraceutical point of view. Regarding the engineering application, researchers have discovered the most suitable materials for intelligent packaging which preserves the food quality and prolongs the shelf-life of the products. Furthermore, in agriculture, specific functionalized polymers are used to increase the efficiency of treatments and reduce the environmental pollution. In the nutraceutical field, because consumers are increasingly conscious of the relationship between diet and health, the consumption of high quality foods has been growing continuously.
Different compounds (e.g. high quality proteins, lipids and polysaccharides) are well known to contribute to the enhancement of human health by different mechanisms, reducing the risk of cardiovascular disease, coronary disease, and hypertension. This first volume, of this two volume book, concerns the application of polymers in food packaging.
Preface xi 1 Polymers and Food Packaging: A Short Overview 1 Umile Gianfranco Spizzirri, Giuseppe Cirillo and Francesca Iemma 1.1 Introduction 1 References 6 2 Polymers for Food Shelf-Life Extension 9 M. G. Volpe, M. Di Stasio, M. Paolucci and S. Moccia 2.1 Shelf-Life Concept 9 2.2 Shelf-Life Definitions 11 2.3 Measuring Shelf Life 21 2.4 Extending Shelf Life by Means of Food Packaging 29 2.5 The Role of Packaging 32 2.6 Innovative Polymers for Food Packaging Applications 36 2.7 Future Trends in Food Packaging 60 References 61 3 Transfer Phenomena in Food/Packaging System 67 Elmira Arab-Tehrany and Laura Sanchez Gonzalez 3.1 Introduction 67 3.2 Food-Packaging Interaction 69 3.3 Mass Transport Processes 70 3.4 Effects of Different Parameters on Partition Coefficient 75 3.5 Model Migrants 76 3.6 Instrumental Analyses 77 3.7 Conclusion 83 References 84 4 Production, Chemistry and Properties of Biopolymers in Food Science 95 Hima Puthussery, Rishika Prasad, Katarzyna Gorazda and Ipsita Roy 4.1 Introduction 95 4.2 Material Properties of Bioplastics Relevant to Food Packaging 98 4.3 Materials 101 4.4 Future Prospects 121 References 122 5 Modification Strategies of Proteins for Food Packaging Applications 127 Agustin Gonzalez, Miriam Cristina Strumia and Cecilia Ines Alvarez Igarzabal 5.1 Biopolymers as Packaging Materials 128 5.2 Protein-Based Materials for Packaging 131 5.3 SPI as a Base Material for Packaging 136 5.4 Conclusion 140 References 140 6 Films Based on Starches 147 Olivia Lopez, Maria Alejandra Garcia and Noemi Zaritzky 6.1 Introduction: General Aspects of Films Based on Native and Modified Starches 148 6.2 Characterization of Biodegradable Films Obtained by Casting from Different Native Starches and Acetylated Corn Starch 151 6.3 Development of Active Starch Films Containing an Antimicrobial Agent (Potassium Sorbate) 182 6.4 Advances in Starch Films Production Using Non-Casting Methods: Thermocompression and Blown Extrusion 184 6.5 Future Trends 196 References 197 7 Polysaccharides as Valuable Materials in Food Packaging 211 Alberto Jimenez, Maria Jose Fabra, Pau Talens and Amparo Chiralt 7.1 Introduction 212 7.2 Polysaccharides Used in Biodegradable Food Packaging 213 7.3 Formation and Main Characteristics of Polysaccharide-Based Films 218 7.4 Physicochemical Properties of Polysaccharide-Based Materials 221 7.5 Functionalization of Polysaccharide Materials 230 7.6 Applications of Polysaccharide-Based Materials in Food Packaging 237 References 241 8 Food Packaging for High Pressure Processing 253 Pablo Juliano, Tobias Richter and Roman Buckow 8.1 High Pressure Processing of Foods 254 8.2 Commercial HPP Applications and Packaging Formats 256 8.3 Modified Atmosphere Packaging (MAP) for HPP 259 8.4 Active Packaging Materials for HPP 268 8.5 Challenges Encountered after HPP 269 8.6 Laminate Selection for HPP at Low Temperature 270 8.7 Laminate Selection for HPP at High Temperature 273 8.8 Final Remarks 276 9 Inorganic-Organic Hybrid Polymers for Food Packaging 281 Sreejarani Kesavan Pillai and Suprakas Sinha Ray 9.1 Introduction 282 9.2 Classification and Terminology of Inorganic-Organic Hybrids 284 9.3 General Preparation Strategies for Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Polymers 287 9.4 Characteristics of Polymer-Based Food Packaging Materials 292 9.5 Hybrid Polymers in Packaging Applications 298 9.6 Current Status and Future Prospects 308 References 310 10 Antimicrobial Active Polymers in Food Packaging 323 Maria Jose Galotto, Abel Guarda and Carolina Lopez de Discastillo 323 10.1 Introduction to Food Packaging 323 10.2 Antimicrobial Agents 327 10.3 Antimicrobial Construction and Release System 341 10.4 Conclusions 345 11 Recycling of Food Packaging Materials 355 Marek Kozlowski 11.1 Introduction 355 11.2 European Policy on Packaging Waste and Raw Materials 357 11.3 Packaging 361 11.4 Recovery Systems 367 11.5 Bioplastics 390 11.6 Polymer Nanocomposites 393 11.7 Polymer Blends 396 References 397 12 Food Applications of Active and Intelligent Packaging: Legal Issues and Safety Concerns 401 Donatella Restuccia, Francesco Puoci, Ortensia I. Parisi and Nevio Picci 12.1 Introduction 402 12.2 AP and IP: Main Characteristics and Applications 404 12.3 Legal Issues 414 12.4 Dossier Submission and EFSA Safety Assessment 420 12.5 Conclusions 425 References 426 Index 431