Given the predominence of residual soils in the under-developed parts of the United States and the Southern Hemisphere, and the increasing rate of new construction in these regions, the understanding of residual soils is expected to increase in importance in the coming years. Drawing on the author's thirty years of practical experience, this is the first textbook to provide equal treatment to both sedimentary and residual soils, and the unique engineering properties of both. It presents the fundamentals of soil mechanics from a geotechnical engineering perspective, pointing to the simularities between soil types and, more importantly, the differences. Numerous worked problems demonstrate the differences between sedimentary and residual soil, while numerous end of chapter exercises supported by an online solutions manual provide hands-on practice.
Laurence D. Wesley has worked as a practicing geotechnical engineer for over thirty years, and his professional experience encompasses projects in New Zealand, Australia, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Bahrain. A member of American Society of Civil Engineers, he is a recently retired senior lecturer in geotechnical engineering at the University of Auckland.
Preface. Acknowledgments. Chapter 1: Soil Formation, Composition, and Basic Concepts. 1.1 Weathering Processes, Sedimentary and Residual Soils. 1.2 Clay Minerals. 1.3 Influence of Topography on Weathering Processes. 1.4 Factors Governing the Properties of Sedimentary and Residual Soils. 1.5 Remoulded or "De-structured" Soils. Chapter 2: Basic Definitions and Phase Relationships. 2.1 The Components of Soil. 2.2 Phase Relationships. 2.3 Examples in the Use of Phase Relationships. 2.4 Measurement of Basic Properties. Chapter 3: Basic Index Tests, Soil Classification and Description. 3.1 General. 3.2 Particle Size and its Role in Influencing Properties. 3.3 Plasticity and Atterberg Limits. 3.4 Liquidity Index of Clay and Relative Density of Sand. 3.5 Sensitivity. 3.6 Systematic Classification Systems. 3.7 Classification of Residual Soils. Chapter 4: Stress and Pore Pressure State in the Ground. 4.1 Vertical Stress in the Ground. 4.2 Pore Pressures above the Water Table and Seasonal Variations. 4.3 Hill Slopes. 4.4 Significance of the Water Table (or Phreatic Surface). 4.5 Horizontal Stresses in the Ground. 4.6 Worked Examples. Chapter 5: Stresses in the Ground From Applied Loads. 5.1 General. 5.2 Elastic Theory Solutions for Stresses Beneath Loaded Areas. Chapter 6: Principle of Effective Stress. 6.1 The Basic Principle. 6.2 Applied Stresses, Drained and Undrained Behaviour. 6.3 Pore Pressure Changes Under Undrained Conditions. 6.4 Some Practical Implications of the Principle of Effective Stress. Chapter 7: Permeability and Seepage. 7.1 General. 7.2 Pressure, ?Head? and Total Head. 7.3 Darcy's Law. 7.4 Measurement of Permeability. 7.5 General Expression for Seepage in a Soil Mass. 7.6 Steady State Flow, the Laplace Equation and Flow Nets. 7.7 Critical Hydraulic Gradient (and "Quick Sand"). 7.8 Unconfined Flow Nets and Approximations in Conventional Formulation. 7.9 Use of Filters in Designed Structures. 7.10 Vertical Flow Through Single Layers and Multi-Layers. 7.11 A Note on Groundwater Studies and Groundwater Mechanics. 7.12 Flow into Excavations, Drains and Wells. Chapter 8: Compressibility, Consolidation and Settlement. 8.1 General Concepts. 8.2 Estimation of Settlement Using Elastic Theory. 8.3 Estimation of Settlement Assuming One-Dimensional Behaviour. 8.4 Immediate ("Elastic") Settlement and Consolidation Settlement. 8.5 Consolidation Behaviour of Clays (and Silts). 8.6 Estimation of Settlement from Oedometer Test Results. 8.7 Approximations and Uncertainties in Settlement Estimates Based on Oedometer Tests. 8.8 Allowable Settlement. 8.9 Radial Flow and Sand (or "Wick") Drains. 8.10 Settlement of Foundations on Sand. Chapter 9: Shear Strength of Soils. 9.1 Basic Concepts and Principles. 9.2 Measurement of Shear Strength. 9.3 Practical Use of Undrained Strength and Effective Stress Strength Parameters. 9.4 Shear Strength Behaviour of Sand. 9.5 The Residual Strength of Clays. 9.6 The Stress Path Concept. 9.7 The Pore Pressure Parameters A and B. 9.8 Shear Strength and Deformation Behaviour of Clay. 9.9 Typical values of Effective Strength Parameters for Clays and Silts. 9.10 The Undrained Strength or Undisturbed and Remoulded Soils. 9.11 Measurement of Undrained Shear Strength. Chapter 10. 10.1 Overview. 10.2 Drilling. 10.3 Undisturbed Sampling using Sample Tubes. 10.4 Block Sampling. 10.5 Investigation Pits (or Test Pits). 10.6 In Situ Testing. 10.7 Correlations Between In Situ Test Results and Soil Properties. Chapter 11: Stability Concepts and Failure Mechanisms. 11.1 Basic Concepts. 11.2 Stability of Slopes. 11.3 Bearing Capacity. 11.4 Retaining Walls. 11.5 Further Observations. Chapter 12: Bearing Capacity and Foundation Design. 12.1 Bearing Capacity. 12.2 Shallow Foundations on Clay. 12.3 Shallow Foundations on Sand. 12.4 Pile Foundations. Chapter 13: Earth Pressure and Retaining Walls. 13.1 Coulomb Wedge Analysis. 13.2 "At rest" Pressure, Active Pressure, Passive Pressure, and Associated Deformations. 13.3 Rankine Earth Pressures. 13.4 Influence of Wall Friction. 13.5 Earth Pressure Coefficients. 13.6 Total Stress Analysis. 13.7 Maximum Height of Unsupported Vertical Banks or Cuts. 13.8 Construction Factors Influencing Earth Pressure on Retaining Walls. 13.9 Propped (strutted) Trenches. 13.10 Retaining Wall Design Example. 13.11 Sheet Pile Retaining Walls. 13.12 Reinforced Earth Walls. Chapter 14: Stability of Slopes. 14.1 Introduction. 14.2 Analysis Using Circular Arc Failure Surfaces. 14.3 Stability Analysis of Infinite Slopes. 14.4 Short Term and Long Term Stability of Built Slopes. 14.5 Stability Analysis of Earth Dams. 14.6 Influence of Climate and Weather on Stability of Slopes. 14.7 Stability Analysis Using Non-Circular Failure Surfaces. Chapter 15: Soil Compaction. 15.1 Earthworks and Soil Compaction. 15.2 Compaction Behavioiur of Soils. 15.3 Control of Compaction. 15.4 Difficulties in Compacting Clays. 15.5 Compaction of Non-Plastic and Granular Materials. Chapter 16: Special Soil Types. 16.1 General Comments. 16.2 Partially Saturated Soils. 16.3 Expansive or Swelling Clays. 16.4 Collapsing Soils.