This is a review of the basic elements directly connected to the evolution of galaxies. Owing to advances in observational astronomy and astrophysics, data has become available about remote galaxies, which are consequently in the first stages of their evolution. It is therefore essential to link these data to the observation of very old populations in our own Galaxy, which are the remnants of the populations which existed in the first stages of galactic evolution. In this meeting, the relationship between these two different points of view is emphasized in the texts presented by well-known specialists as well as by young researchers active in the field. The difficulties of the problem and the remaining uncertainties are discussed.
Foreword. Preface. List of Participants. I. Introduction. II. The pregalactic evolution and the nucleosynthesis of the elements. III. The old Halo populations. IV. The old Disk population. V. The Bulges. VI. Evolution of the Milky Way. VII. Evolution of the external galaxies. VIII. Future prospects and Conclusions.