This book provides the necessary background of geometry, mathematics and physical geodesy, useful to a rigorous approach to geodetic heights. The concept of height seems to be intuitive and immediate, but on the contrary it requires a good deal of scientific sharpness in the definition and use. As a matter of fact the geodetic, geographic and engineering practice has introduced many different heights to describe our Earth physical reality in terms of spatial position of points and surfaces. This has urged us to achieve a standard capability of transforming one system into the other. Often this is done in an approximate and clumsy way. This book solves the above practical problems in a rigorous way, showing what degree of approximation is used in approximate formulas. In addition the book gives a sound view on a matter that is presently occupying scientific associations, namely the unification of the global and regional height reference systems. It provides the mathematical background as well as the state of the art of its implementation. It will be particularly useful for professionals and national agencies. 5 Tables, color; 1 Illustrations, color; 29 Illustrations, black and white; VIII, 141 p. 30 illus., 1 illus. in color.