Geologically Storing Carbon: Learning from the Otway Project Experience

Geologically Storing Carbon: Learning from the Otway Project Experience

By: Peter J. Cook (editor)Hardback

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Description

Carbon capture and geological storage (CCS) is presently the only way that we can make deep cuts in emissions from fossil fuel-based, large-scale sources of CO2 such as power stations and industrial plants. But if this technology is to be acceptable to the community, it is essential that it is credibly demonstrated by world-class scientists and engineers in an open and transparent manner at a commercially significant scale. The aim of the Australian Otway Project was to do just this. Geologically Storing Carbon provides a detailed account of the CO2CRC Otway Project, one of the most comprehensive demonstrations of the deep geological storage or geosequestration of carbon dioxide undertaken anywhere. This book of 18 comprehensive chapters, written by leading experts in the field, is more than a record of outstanding science- it is about "learning by doing". For example, it explains how the project was organised, managed, funded and constructed, as well as the approach taken to community issues, regulations and approvals. It also describes how to understand the site: Are the rocks mechanically suitable? Will the CO2 leak? Is there enough storage capacity? Is monitoring effective? This is the book for geologists, engineers, regulators, project developers, industry, communities, indeed anyone who wants to better understand how a carbon storage project really works. It is also for people concerned with obtaining an in-depth appreciation of one of the key technology options for decreasing greenhouse emissions to the atmosphere.

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About Author

Professor Peter J Cook CBE FTSE is a leading geologist and a Professorial Fellow at the University of Melbourne (the University established the Peter Cook Centre for CCS Research in 2012). Previously he was the Foundation CEO of the Cooperative Research Centre for Greenhouse Gas Technologies (CO2CRC) and in 2004 first developed the concept of the CO2CRC Otway Project. Previously he was Director of the British Geological Survey. Professor Cook was Coordinating Lead Author of the IPCC Special Volume on CCS and has published many papers, articles and books on resource, energy and environmental issues. His book Clean Energy, Climate and Carbon was published by CSIRO in 2012.

Contents

Foreword 1 xi Foreword 2 xii Preface xiii Authors xvii Acknowledgements xx 1. Developing the Project 1 Peter Cook, Mal Lees, Sandeep Sharma 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Developing an Australian project 2 1.3 Developing a suitable corporate structure 10 1.4 Formation of CO2CRC Pilot Project LTD 13 1.5 Funding the project 17 1.6 Designing the Otway Project 22 1.7 Project liability and risk 30 1.8 Conclusions 33 1.9 References 34 2. Communications and the Otway Project 35 Tony Steeper 2.1 Introduction 35 2.2 Strategic communications and the Otway Project 35 2.3 Social research and the Otway Project 40 2.4 Operational issues relating to communications and the community 42 2.5 Conclusions 43 2.6 References 43 3. Government approvals 45 Namiko Ranasinghe 3.1 Introduction 45 3.2 Challenges of regulating a pilot project 47 3.3 Impact assessment and planning approvals 48 3.4 Environmental authority approvals 49 3.5 Petroleum authority approvals 49 3.6 Water authority approvals 51 3.7 Land access and acquisition 51 3.8 Miscellaneous approvals 53 3.9 Transitional arrangements 53 3.10 Liability and responsibility 53 3.11 Stakeholder engagement 54 3.12 Conclusions 55 3.13 References 56 4. Design and operational considerations 57 Craig Dugan, Ian Black, Sandeep Sharma 4.1 Introduction 57 4.2 Options for gas processing 58 4.3 Facilities and pipeline design considerations 64 4.4 Facilities design 66 4.5 Unanticipated operational problems 69 4.6 Conclusions 70 5. Characterising the storage site 71 Tess Dance 5.1 Introduction 71 5.2 Site details 74 5.3 Injectivity 80 5.4 Capacity 81 5.5 Reservoir heterogeneity 83 5.6 Containment 87 5.7 Site analogue 88 5.8 The evolution of the static models 89 5.9 Conclusions 91 5.10 References 92 6. Evaluating CO2 column height retention of cap rocks 97 Richard Daniel, John Kaldi 6.1 Introduction 97 6.2 Mercury injection capillary pressure 98 6.3 Methodology 98 6.4 Pore throat size determination 98 6.5 CO2 contact angle 99 6.6 Determination of seal capacity or column height 101 6.7 Interpreting threshold (breakthrough) pressure 102 6.8 Results for CRC-1 and CRC-2 110 6.9 Conclusions 110 6.10 References 111 7. Geomechanical investigations 113 Eric Tenthorey 7.1 Introduction 113 7.2 Key data for geomechanical assessment of the Otway site 115 7.3 Geomechanical workflow at the Otway site 118 7.4 3D geomechanical modelling 122 7.5 The Iona gas storage facility as an analogue for CO2 storage 123 7.6 Conclusions 126 7.7 References 126 8. Containment risk assessment 129 Maxwell Watson 8.1 Introduction 129 8.2 Methodology 129 8.3 Risk assessment context 131 8.4 Storage complex 131 8.5 Risk items 132 8.6 Risk assessment output 138 8.7 Conclusions 139 8.8 References 139 9. Monitoring and verification 141 Charles Jenkins 9.1 Introduction 141 9.2 Designing a monitoring programme 142 9.3 Designing the Otway monitoring programme 144 9.4 Evaluation of monitoring techniques 148 9.5 Conclusions 151 9.6 References 152 10. 2D and 3D seismic investigations for Stages 1 and 2C 155 Boris Gurevich, Roman Pevzner, Milovan Urosevic, Anton Kepic, Valeriya Shulakova, Eva Caspari 10.1 Introduction 155 10.2 Modelling seismic response of injected CO2 in Stage 1 156 10.3 Modelling seismic response of CO2 leakage for 2C 158 10.4 Time-lapse repeatability in Stage 1 164 10.5 Time-lapse surface seismic monitoring for Stage 1 171 10.6 Downhole seismic methods for Stage 1 177 10.7 Laboratory studies of CO2 acoustic response as an adjunct to field studies 188 10.8 Conclusions 192 10.9 References 193 11. Seismic and microseismic monitoring 197 Tom Daley, Barry Freifeld, Tony Siggins 11.1 Introduction 197 11.2 High resolution travel time (HRTT) monitoring and offset VSP 197 11.3 Passive seismic monitoring 207 11.4 Microseismic monitoring using surface stations 209 11.5 Conclusions 215 11.6 References 216 12. Monitoring the geochemistry of reservoir fluids 217 Chris Boreham, Barry Freifeld, Dirk Kirste, Linda Stalker 12.1 Introduction 217 12.2 Sampling the Buttress-1 well 217 12.3 Sampling the CRC-1 injection well 218 12.4 Sampling the Naylor-1 monitoring well 220 12.5 Injecting tracers at the CRC-1 injection well 224 12.6 Analytical methods 228 12.7 Composition of hydrocarbons 232 12.8 Formation water composition and behaviour 240 12.9 Constraining CO2 breakthrough 241 12.10 In-reservoir behaviour of tracers 244 12.11 Liquid hydrocarbons 245 12.12 Solid hydrocarbons 245 12.13 Conclusions 247 12.14 References 248 13. Monitoring groundwaters 251 Patrice de Caritat, Allison Hortle, Dirk Kirste 13.1 Introduction 251 13.2 Monitoring groundwater level 252 13.3 Monitoring groundwater composition 253 13.4 Interpreting groundwater results 257 13.5 Groundwater composition 260 13.6 Operational issues relating to groundwater monitoring 261 13.7 Quality control 264 13.8 Conclusions 270 13.9 References 270 14. Soil gas monitoring 273 Ulrike Schacht 14.1 Introduction 273 14.2 Surficial geology 274 14.3 Soil gas sampling at Otway 274 14.4 Analysis of soil gas 275 14.5 Soil gas results 276 14.6 Interpretation of soil gas results 277 14.7 Conclusions 279 14.8 References 279 15. Atmospheric monitoring 281 David Etheridge, Ray Leuning, Ashok Luhar, Zoe Loh, Darren Spencer, Colin Allison, Paul Steele, Steve Zegelin, Charles Jenkins, Paul Krummel, Paul Fraser 15.1 Introduction 281 15.2 Sensitivity 282 15.3 Simulated emissions and monitoring design 282 15.4 Background CO2 283 15.5 Data filtering 288 15.6 Bayesian inverse modelling 289 15.7 Conclusions 290 15.8 References 291 16. Reservoir engineering for Stage 1 293 Jonathan Ennis-King, Lincoln Paterson 16.1 Introduction 293 16.2 Description of field data 293 16.3 Well history 297 16.4 Well locations 297 16.5 Well completions 297 16.6 Initial pre-production conditions 297 16.7 Initial fluid compositions 299 16.8 Production data 299 16.9 Post-production conditions 299 16.10 Composition of injected gas 300 16.11 Downhole pressure and temperature during injection 300 16.12 Tracer injection 301 16.13 Gas and tracer sampling 301 16.14 Post-injection conditions 302 16.15 Simulation approach 303 16.16 Dynamic modelling process 308 16.17 Pre-injection modelling results 310 16.18 Injection and post-injection modelling results 312 16.19 Dynamic storage capacity of a depleted gas field 322 16.20 Conclusions 323 16.21 References 324 17. CO2CRC Otway Stage 2B residual saturation and dissolution test 329 Lincoln Paterson, Chris Boreham, Mark Bunch, Tess Dance, Jonathan Ennis-King, Barry Freifeld, Ralf Haese, Charles Jenkins, Matthias Raab, Rajindar Singh, Linda Stalker 17.1 Introduction 329 17.2 Test concept 330 17.3 Injection target 332 17.4 Test sequence 334 17.5 Downhole completion 339 17.6 Measurements 342 17.7 Surface data 342 17.8 Thermal logging 345 17.9 Noble gas tracer tests 345 17.10 Testing phases 345 17.11 Downhole data (memory gauges) 347 17.12 Downhole data (permanent gauges) 347 17.13 Pulsed neutron logging 351 17.14 The organic tracer test 353 17.15 The dissolution test 357 17.16 Conclusions 358 17.17 References 360 18. What was learned from the Otway Project? 361 Peter Cook 18.1 Introduction 361 18.2 Organising a project 363 18.3 Managing a project 364 18.4 Funding a project 365 18.5 Project communications and collaboration 366 18.6 Regulating a project 366 18.7 Identifying a suitable project site 367 18.8 Deciding on project science 367 18.9 Deciding on project monitoring 368 18.10 Curating project data 370 18.11 Lessons for the future? 370 18.12 Conclusions 372 18.13 References 373 Index 375

Product Details

  • publication date: 29/08/2014
  • ISBN13: 9781118986189
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 352
  • ID: 9781118986189
  • weight: 1656
  • ISBN10: 1118986180

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  • 1st Class Delivery: Yes
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