Ghanaian English Pronunciation: v. 22 (Studies in Linguistics & Semiotics S. v. 22)

Ghanaian English Pronunciation: v. 22 (Studies in Linguistics & Semiotics S. v. 22)

By: Sophia A. Adjaye (author)Hardback

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Description

This book is an analytical description of the English accent used by Ghanaians. The work begins with a socio-historical background of English use in Ghana, with a view to identifying the possible varieties of English introduced to the then Gold Coast.

Contents

Preface i; Acknowledgements v; The International Phonetic Alphabet vii; List of Abbreviations and Additional Symbols viii; 1 INTRODUCTION: HISTORICAL AND LINGUISTIC SETTING 1; 1.1 The History of English in Ghana 1; 1.1.1 The Use of English in the Gold Coast 3; 1.1.2 Education in England 4; 1.1.3 Education in the Gold Coast 6; 1.1.4 The Social Impact of Education 9; 1.1.5 Varieties of English Accents in Ghana 10; 1.2 Ghana: Linguistic Background 13; 1.2.1 Introduction 13; 1.2.2 Akan, Ewe, and Ga 14; 1.3 The Vowel Systems 15; 1.3.1 Akan Vowels 15; 1.3.2 Ewe Vowels 18; 1.3.3 Ga Vowels 19; 1.3.4 Akan, Ewe, and Ga Vowels Compared 19; 1.4 The Consonant Systems 22; 1.4.1 Akan Consonants 22; 1.4.2 Ewe Consonants 22; 1.4.3 Ga Consonants 23; 1.4.4 Akan, Ewe, and Ga Consonants Compared 24; 1.5 Syllable Structure 26; 1.6 Tone 27; 2 THE RESEARCH 29; 2.1 Existing works on Ghanaian English pronunciation 29; 2.2 Informants 30; 2.2.1 Informants: Selection 30; 2.2.2 Informants: Description 32; 2.3 Data Collection 35; 2.3.1 Questionnaire 36; 2.3.2 Reading Material 36; 2.3.2.1 Word Lists 37; 2.3.2.2 Connected Speech 38; 2.3.3 Recording Procedure 38; 2.4 Data Analysis 39; 2.4.1 Transcription Procedure 39. 2.4.2 Theoretical Analysis 40; 3 MONOPHTHONGS: SHORT VOWELS 43; 3.1 Introduction 43; 3.2/I/ 44; 3.2.1 /I/ According to Phonetic Context 47; 3.2.1.1 Accented /I/ + Word Final Lenis Consonant(s): BRING/KING/THIN 47; 3.2.1.2 Accented /I/ + Word Final Fortis Consonants: MIX 48; 3.2.1.3 Accented /I/ + [ ]: MILK/WILL 48; 3.2.1.4 Accented Penultimate /I/: LITTLE 49; 3.2.1.5 Accented Antepenultimate /I/: PRINCIPAL 50; 3.2.1.6 Accented Ante-antepenultimate /I/ 50; 3.2.1.7 /I/ Preceding Main Accent: DEDICATION 51; 3.2.1.8 /I/ Following Main Accent: HOSPITAL 51; 3.2.1.9 Pre-Tonic /I/ 53; 3.2.1.10 Pre-Tonic /I/ Discussed 53; 3.2.1.11 Post-Tonic /I/ 54; 3.2.1.12 Post-Tonic /I/ Discussed 55; 3.3 /[epsilon]/ 56; 3.3.1 Realization of /[epsilon]/ According to Phonetic Context 58; 3.3.1.1 Accented /[epsilon]/ + Word Final Lenis Consonant(s): DREAD 58; 3.3.1.2 Accented /[epsilon]/ + Word-Final Fortis Consonant(s): GET 58; 3.3.1.3 /[epsilon]/ + [ ]: HELP 59; 3.3.1.4 Accented Penultimate /[epsilon]/: LETTER 60; 3.3.1.5 Accented Antepenultimate /[epsilon]/: MEDICINE 60; 3.3.1.6 Accented Ante-Antepenultimate /[epsilon]/: VEGETABLE 61; 3.3.1.7 /[epsilon]/ Preceding Main Accent: GENERATION 61; 3.3.1.8 /[epsilon]/ Following Main Accent: PROGRESS 63; 3.3.1.9 Pre-Tonic en-/es-/ex- 63; 3.3.1.10 Post-Tonic-ed/-est/-et/-ect/-ness 63; 3.4 /[epsilon]/ 64; 3.4.1 /ae/ According to Phonetic Context 66; 3.4.1.1 Accented /ae/ + Lenis Consonants: MAN 66; 3.4.1.2 Accented /ae/ + Fortis Consonants: BACK 67; 3.4.1.3 Accented Penultimate /ae/: ACTED 68; 3.4.1.4 Accented Antepenultimate /ae/: LANGUAGES 69; 3.4.1.5 Accented Ante-antepenultimate /ae/: ABSOLUTELY 70; 3.4.1.6 Preceding Main Accent: MAGAZINE 70; 3.4.1.7 /ae/ Following Main Accent: PROGRAMME 71; 3.5 /[LAMBDA]/ 71; 3.5.1 /[LAMBDA]/ According to Phonetic Context 75; 3.5.1.1 /[LAMBDA]/ + Lenis Consonants: ONE 75; 3.5.1.2 Accented /[LAMBDA]/ + Fortis Consonant(s): MUST 76; 3.5.1.3 Accented /[LAMBDA]/ + [ ]: BULB 77; 3.5.1.4 Accented Penultimate /[LAMBDA]/: COMING 77. 3.5.1.5 Accented Antepenultimate /[LAMBDA]/: SUDDENLY 79; 3.6 / / 80; 3.6.1 / / According to Context 83; 3.6.1.1 / / + Lenis Consonant(s): ON 83; 3.6.1.2 / / + Fortis Consonant(s): HOT 83; 3.6.1.3 Accented Penultimate / /: LONGER 84; 3.6.1.4 Accented Antepenultimate / /: HOSPITAL 84; 3.6.1.5 Accented Ante-antepenultimate 85; 3.6.1.6 / / Preceding Main Accent: ACCOMODATION 85; 3.6.1.7 / / Following Main Accent: NOBODY 85; 3.7 / / 86; 3.7.1 / / According to Phonetic Context 89; 3.7.1.1 Accented / / + Lenis Consonant(s): GOOD 89; 3.7.1.2 Accented / / + Fortis Consonant(s): LOOK 90; 3.7.1.3 Accented Penultimate / /: STUPID 91; 3.7.1.4 Accented Antepenultimate / /: OPPORTUNITY 92; 3.7.1.5 / / Preceding Main Accent: EDUCATION 92; 3.7.1.6 / / Following Main Accent: BEAUTIFUL 93; 3.8 / / 94; 3.8.1 Word-Initial / / 94; 3.8.2 Final Closed / / 98; 3.8.3 Final Open / / 102; 4 LONG VOWELS AND DIPHTHONGS 107; 4.1 Introduction 107; 4.2 /i:/ 107; 4.2.1 /i:/ According to Phonetic Context 108; 4.2.1.1 Accented /i:/ in Final Open Syllable: AGREE 108; 4.2.1.2 Accented /i:/ + Lenis Consonant(s): BELIEVE 110; 4.2.1.2.1 FIELD 110; 4.2.1.3 Accented /i:/ + Fortis Consonant(s): SPEAK 112; 4.2.1.4 Accented Penultimate /i:/: ZEBRA 112; 4.2.1.5 Accented Antepenultimate /i:/ 112; 4.2.1.6 /i:/ Following Main Accent: FIFTEEN 112; 4.3 /I / 113; 4.3.1 /I /: Categories A and C 116; 4.3.2 CLEAR, HERE 116; 4.3.3 REALLY, SERIOUS, WEARY, ZERO 117; 4.3.4 Phonemic Status of /I / 117; 4.4 /e:/ 118; 4.5 /[epsilon] / (/[epsilon]:/) 121; 4.5.1 THEIR 125; 4.6 /o:/ 125; 4.6.1 ASK, ANSWER, CLERK 126; 4.7 / :/ 128; 4.7.1 DWARF, COUGH 131. 4.8 /o:/ 131; 4.8.1 WON'T 134; 4.9 / / 134; 4.10 /u:/ 139; 4.11 / :/ 141; 4.12 Wide Diphthongs 145; 4.12.1 Introduction 145; 4.12.2 /aI, a / 145; 4.12.3 /aI/ 145; 4.12.4 /a / 147; 4.12.5 / I/ 148; 4.13 Vowels: Summary 150; 5 CONSONANTS 157; 5.1 Introduction 157; 5.2 Plosives: /p,b/,/t,d/,/k,g/ 157; 5.2.1 /p/ 159; 5.2.2 /b/ 159; 5.2.3 /t/ 160; 5.2.3.1 Realization of /t/ 161; 5.2.4 /d/ 161; 5.2.4.1 Realization of /d/ 162; 5.2.4.2 Realization of Past/Past Participle Morphemes {-ed} 163; 5.2.5 /k/ 163; 5.2.5.1 TAXI, APPROXIMATE 164; 5.2.6 /g/ 165; 5.2.7 The Glottal Stop [?] 165; 5.2.7.1 [?] in Pre-Vocalic Position 166; 5.2.7.2 [?] in Intervocalic Position 166; 5.2.7.3 [?] after Vowels Followed by Consonants 166; 5.2.7.4 [?] to Replace Stops 167; 5.2.7.5 [?] Pre-Pausally 167; 5.2.7.6 [?] Signalling Hesitation or Mistake 167; 5.2.8 Plosives: Summary 168; 5.3 Affricates 168; 5.3.1 Introduction to / , / 168; 5.3.2 / / 169; 5.3.2.1 -STION 169; 5.3.3 / / 170; 5.4 Fricatives 170; 5.4.1 Introduction to /f, v/, /[THETA], /, /s,z/, / , /, /h/ 170; 5.4.2 /f/ 171; 5.4.3 /v/ 172; 5.4.3.1 Realization of /v/ 172; 5.4.3.2 OF 173; 5.4.4 /[THETA]/ 173. 5.4.4.1 Realization of /[THETA]/ 174; 5.4.5 / / 175; 5.4.5.1 Realization of / / 176; 5.4.6 Introduction to /s, z/ 177; 5.4.7 /s/ 177; 5.4.7.1 Orthographic Word-Initial s- and c- 177; 5.4.7.2 /s/ in Clusters 178; 5.4.7.3 Inflectional -s 179; 5.4.7.4 Final Non-inflectional -x, -se, -s, -ss, -ce, -c(y) 179; 5.4.7.5 Other Non-final -s(s)- and -c- 179; 5.4.8 /z/ 181; 5.4.8.1 Inflectional {-s} Morphemes 181; 5.4.8.2 Non-inflectional Final -s(e) 182; 5.4.8.3 Some Medial -s(s)- 182; 5.4.8.4 /z/ Summary 182; 5.4.9 / / 183; 5.4.10 / / 184; 5.4.11 /h/ 186; 5.4.12 Fricatives: Summary 187; 5.5 Sonorants 188; 5.5.1 Introduction to /m, n, /, /l/, /r/, /j, w/ 188; 5.5.2 /m/ 189; 5.5.2.1 -mb 189; 5.5.3 /n/ 190; 5.5.3.1 /V + n/ [V] 191; 5.5.3.2 [n] or [V + n] 191; 5.5.4 / / 193; 5.5.4.1 -ing 194; 5.5.4.2 THING(S), KING(S) 196; 5.5.4.3 [ ] in Stressed Syllables 196; 5.5.5 /l/ 197; 5.5.6 /r/ 199; 5.5.6.1 'Linking' /r/ 201; 5.5.6.2 'Intrusive' /r/ 201; 5.5.7 /l/ and /r/: Summary 202; 5.5.8 /j/ 202; 5.5.8.1 /j/ Yod Deletion in GhE 202; 5.5.9 /w/ 203; 5.6 Consonants: Summary 204; 5.7 Consonant Clusters 208; 5.7.1 Introduction 208; 5.7.2 Initial Clusters 208; 5.7.2.1 Two-Term Initial Clusters 208; 5.7.2.2 Three-Term Initial Clusters 208; 5.7.3 Final Clusters 209; 5.7.3.1 Two-Term Final Clusters 209. 5.7.3.2 Three-Term -CC + [s z] 210; 5.7.3.3 Three-Term -CC + [t] 212; 5.7.3.4 Four-Term Final Clusters 213; 5.7.4 Word-Medial Cluster Reduction 213; 6 FEATURES OF CONNECTED SPEECH 215; 6.1 Introduction 215; 6.2 Assimilation 215; 6.2.1 Word-Internal Assimilation 215; 6.2.1.1 Vowel Nasalization 215; 6.2.1.2 Word-Internal Voicing Assimilation 216; 6.2.2 Word Boundary Assimilation 219; 6.2.2.1 Voicing Assimilation across Word Boundaries 219; 6.2.2.2 Place Assimilation across Word Boundaries 220; 6.2.2.3 Coalescent Assimilation 222; 6.2.4 Assimilation: Summary 222; 6.3 Elision 223; 6.3.1 Word-Internal Elision 223; 6.3.1.1 Vowel Elision 223; 6.3.1.2 Post-tonic /I/ Elision 224; 6.3.1.3 Pre-tonic /I/ Elision 224; 6.3.1.4 Syllable Elision 225; 6.3.1.5 Word-Internal Consonant Elision 225; 6.3.2 Elision at Word Boundaries 225; 6.3.2.1 /t, d/ Elision 225; 6.3.2.2 Elision of other Consonants at Word Boundaries 226; 6.3.2.3 Schwa Elision across Word Boundaries 226; 6.4 Metathesis 226; 7 WORD ACCENTUATION 229; 7.1 Introduction 229; 7.2 Nouns 232; 7.2.1 Disyllabic Nouns 232; 7.2.1.1 SUCCESS and MADAM 233; 7.2.2 Disyllabic Compound Nouns 233; 7.2.3 Polysyllabic Nouns 233; 7.2.3.1 Tri-Syllabic Nouns 233; 7.2.3.1.1 DEPOSIT, COMPONENT, OPPONENT 234; 7.2.3.1.2 COMMITTEE, CIGARETTE, MAGAZINE 234; 7.2.3.2 Four or More Syllables 234; 7.2.3.3 Polysyllabic Nouns with Differing GhE Stress 235; 7.3 Verbs 235; 7.3.1 Disyllabic Verbs 235; 7.3.2 Polysyllabic Verbs 236; 7.3.2.1 Tri-Syllabic Verbs 236; 7.3.2.2 Four or More Syllables 237. 7.4 Adjectives 238; 7.4.1 Disyllabic Adjectives 238; 7.4.2 Polysyllabic Adjectives 238; 7.4.2.1 Tri-Syllabic Adjectives 238; 7.4.2.2 Four or More Syllables 238; 7.5 Adverbs 239; 7.5.1 Disyllabic Adverbs 239; 7.5.2 Polysyllabic Adverbs 239; 7.5.2.1 Tri-Syllabic Adverbs 239; 7.5.2.2 Four or More Syllables 240; 7.6 Accentuation: Summary 240; 8 INTONATION 241; 8.1 Introduction 241; 8.1.1 Variable Pitch 243; 8.1.2 Downdrift 245; 8.1.3 Intonation of Multisyllabic Words 245; 8.2 Sentence Intonation in Detail 246; 8.2.1 Types of Nuclear Tone 246; 8.2.1.1 The Fall 247; 8.2.1.2 The Mid-Level 248; 8.2.1.3 The Rise 249; 8.2.1.4 The Fall-Rise 251; 8.2.1.5 The Rise-Fall 253; 8.3 Pre-Nuclear Patterns 254; 8.3.1 The High Head 254; 8.3.2 The Low Head 258; 8.3.3 The Pre-Head 258; 8.4 The Tail 259; 8.5 Emphasis and Contrast 259; 8.6 The Role of Intonation 262; 8.6.1 Accentual Functions of Intonation 262; 8.6.2 Grammatical Functions of Intonation 263; 8.6.3 Attitudinal Functions of Intonation 265; 8.6.3.1 The Fall 265; 8.6.3.2 The Rise-Fall 267; 8.6.3.3 The Rise 267; 8.6.3.4 The Fall-Rise 270; 8.6.3.5 The Mid-Level 271; 8.7 Differences 273; 9 CONCLUSION 277; 9.1 Summary 277; 9.2 L1 Features 277; 9.3 Spelling and Analogy 278; 9.4 Native English Accents 279. 9.5 Other Factors 282; 9.6 Current State of Ghanaian English 283; 9.7 Intelligibility of Ghanaian English 284; 9.7.1 Procedure 285; 9.7.2 Testing 286; 9.7.3 Scores 286; 9.8 Ghanaian Attitudes to English Accents 288; 9.9 Recommendations for Future Research 290; APPENDIX A 291; I. Questionnaire 291; II. Word List 293; III. Connected Speech 299; IV. Intelligibility Test: Instructions 302; APPENDIX B 303; Samples of Free Speech 303; BIBLIOGRAPHY 307; INDEX 317.

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9780773462083
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 332
  • ID: 9780773462083
  • ISBN10: 0773462082

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