Green Processes: Designing Safer Chemicals (Handbook of Green Chemistry Volume 9)

Green Processes: Designing Safer Chemicals (Handbook of Green Chemistry Volume 9)

By: Adelina Voutchkova-Kostal (author), Robert Boethling (author), Paul T. Anastas (series_editor)Hardback

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Description

The shift towards being as environmentally-friendly as possible has resulted in the need for this important reference on the topic of designing safer chemicals. Edited by the leading international experts in the field, Robert Boethling and Adelina Votchkova, this volume covers such topics as toxicity, reducing hazards and biochemical pesticides. An essential resource for anyone wishing to gain an understanding of the world of green chemistry, as well as for chemists, environmental agencies and chemical engineers. The Handbook of Green Chemistry comprises of 9 volumes in total, split into 3 subject-specific sets. The three sets are available individually. All 9 volumes are available individually, too. Set I: Green Catalysis - Volume 1: Homogeneous Catalysis - Volume 2: Heterogeneous Catalysis - Volume 3: Biocatalysis Set II: Green Solvents - Volume 4: Supercritical Solvents - Volume 5: Reactions in Water - Volume 6: Ionic Liquids Set III: Green Processes - Volume 7: Green Synthesis - Volume 8: Green Nanoscience - Volume 9: Designing Safer Chemicals The Handbook of Green Chemistry is also available as Online Edition. Podcasts Listen to two podcasts in which Professor Paul Anastas and Journals Editor Paul Trevorrow discuss the origin and expansion of Green Chemistry and give an overview of The Handbook of Green Chemistry.

About Author

Paul T. Anastas joined Yale University as Professor and iserves as the Director of the Center for Green Chemistry and Green Engineering at Yale. From 2004-2006, Paul Anastas has been the Director of the Green Chemistry Institute in Washington, D.C. Until June of 2004 he served as Assistant Director for Environment at e White House Office of Science and Technology Policy where his responsibilities included a wide range of environmental science issues including furthering international public-private cooperation in areas of Science for Sustainability such as Green Chemistry. In 1991, he established the industry-government-university partnership Green Chemistry Program, which was expanded to include basic research, and the Presidential Green Chemistry Challenge Awards. He has published and edited several books in the field of Green Chemistry and developed the 12 principles of Green Chemistry.

Contents

About the Editors XVII List of Contributors XIX Preface XXIII 1 The Design of Safer Chemicals: Past, Present, and Future Perspectives 1 Stephen C. DeVito 1.1 Evolution of the Concept 1 1.2 Characteristics of a "Safer Chemical" 9 1.3 The Future of the Concept 16 1.4 Disclaimer 18 References 18 2 Differential Toxicity Characterization of Green Alternative Chemicals 21 Richard Judson 2.1 Introduction 21 2.2 Chemical Properties Related to Differential Toxicity 23 2.3 Modeling Chemical Clearance Metabolism and Excretion 25 2.4 Predicting Differential Inherent Molecular Toxicity 28 2.5 Integrating In Vitro Data to Model Toxicity Potential 31 2.6 Databases Relevant for Toxicity Characterization 33 2.7 Example of Differential Toxicity Analysis 34 2.8 Conclusion 39 2.9 Disclaimer 40 References 40 3 Understanding Mechanisms of Metabolic Transformations as a Tool for Designing Safer Chemicals 47 Thomas G. Osimitz and John L. Nelson 3.1 Introduction 47 3.2 The Role of Metabolism in Producing Toxic Metabolites 47 3.3 Mechanisms by Which Chemicals Produce Toxicity 59 3.4 Conclusion 69 References 72 4 Structural and Toxic Mechanism-Based Approaches to Designing Safer Chemicals 77 Stephen C. DeVito 4.1 Toxicophores 77 4.2 Designing Safer Electrophilic Substances 82 4.3 Structure Activity Relationships 86 4.4 Quantitative Structure Activity Relationships (QSARs) 92 4.5 Isosteric Substitution as a Strategy for the Design of Safer Chemicals 95 4.6 Conclusion 100 4.7 Disclaimer 102 References 102 5 Informing Substitution to Safer Alternatives 107 Emma Lavoie, David DiFiore, Meghan Marshall, Chuantung Lin, Kelly Grant, Katherine Hart, Fred Arnold, Laura Morlacci, Kathleen Vokes, Carol Hetfield, Elizabeth Sommer, Melanie Vrabel, Mary Cushmac, Charles Auer, and Clive Davies 5.1 Design for Environment Approaches to Risk Reduction: Identifying and Encouraging the Use of Safer Chemistry 107 5.2 Assessment of Safer Chemical Alternatives: Enabling Scientific, Technological, and Commercial Development 108 5.3 Informed Substitution 111 5.4 Examples that Illustrate Informed Substitution 116 5.5 Conclusion 132 5.6 Disclaimer 133 References 133 6 Design of Safer Chemicals Ionic Liquids 137 Ian Beadham, Monika Gurbisz and Nicholas Gathergood 6.1 Introduction 137 6.2 Environmental Considerations 137 6.3 Ionic Liquids a Historical Perspective 138 6.4 From Ionic Liquid Stability to Biodegradability 141 6.5 Conclusion 152 References 155 7 Designing Safer Organocatalysts What Lessons Can Be Learned When the Rebirth of an Old Research Area Coincides with the Advent of Green Chemistry? 159 Ian Beadham, Monika Gurbisz and Nicholas Gathergood 7.1 Introduction 159 7.2 A Brief History of Organocatalysis 159 7.3 Catalysts from the Chiral Pool 163 7.4 "Rules of Thumb" for Small Molecule Biodegradability Applied to Organocatalysts 167 7.5 Cinchona Alkaloids Natural Products as a Source of Organocatalysts: Appendix 7.A 174 7.6 Proline, the Most Extensively Studied Organocatalyst: Appendix 7.B 175 7.7 Process of Catalyst Development 177 7.8 Analogs of Nornicotine an Aldol Catalyst Exemplifying "Natural" Toxicity 179 7.9 Pharmaceutically Derived Organocatalysts and the Role of Cocatalysts 180 7.10 Conclusion 185 7.11 Summary 185 References 221 8 Life-Cycle Concepts for Sustainable Use of Engineered Nanomaterials in Nanoproducts 227 Bernd Nowack, Fadri Gottschalk, Nicole C. Mueller and Claudia Som 8.1 Introduction 227 8.2 Life-Cycle Perspectives in Green Nanotechnologies 228 8.3 Release of Nanomaterials from Products 230 8.4 Exposure Modeling of Nanomaterials in the Environment 237 8.5 Designing Safe Nanomaterials 243 8.6 Conclusion 245 References 245 9 Drugs 251 Klaus Kummerer 9.1 Introduction 251 9.2 Pharmaceuticals What They Are 251 9.3 Pharmaceuticals in the Environment Sources, Fate, and Effects 252 9.4 Risk Management 257 9.5 Designing Environmentally Safe Drugs 259 9.6 Conclusion 271 References 272 10 Greener Chelating Agents 281 Nicholas J. Dixon 10.1 Introduction 281 10.2 Chelants 282 10.3 Common Chelants 284 10.4 Issues with Current Chelants 285 10.5 Green Design Part 1 Search for Biodegradable Chelants 290 10.6 Comparing Chelating Agents 293 10.7 Six Steps to Greener Design 299 10.8 Case Study Six Steps to Greener Chelants for Laundry 302 10.9 Conclusion 305 10.10 Abbreviations 305 References 306 11 Improvements to the Environmental Performance of Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds 309 Sajida Bakhtyar and Marthe Monique Gagnon 11.1 Introduction 309 11.2 Drilling Mud Composition 310 11.3 Characteristics and Biodegradability of SBFs 312 11.4 Case Study: Improvements in the Environmental Performance of Synthetic-Based Drilling Muds 314 11.5 Conclusion 323 References 323 12 Biochemical Pesticides: Green Chemistry Designs by Nature 329 Russell S. Jones 12.1 Introduction 329 12.2 The Historical Path to Safer Pesticides 329 12.3 Reduced-Risk Conventional Pesticides 331 12.4 The Biopesticide Alternative: an Overview 331 12.5 Biochemical Pesticides 333 12.6 Are Biochemical Pesticides the Wave of the Future? 340 12.7 Conclusion 343 12.8 Disclaimer 343 References 344 13 Property-Based Approaches to Design Rules for Reduced Toxicity 349 Adelina Voutchkova, Jakub Kostal, and Paul Anastas 13.1 Possible Approaches to Systematic Design Guidelines for Reduced Toxicity 349 13.2 Analogy with Medicinal Chemistry 354 13.3 Do Chemicals with Similar Toxicity Profiles Have Similar Physical/Chemical Properties? 356 13.4 Proposed Design Guidelines for Reduced Human Toxicity 358 13.5 Using Property Guidelines to Design for Reducing Acute Aquatic Toxicity 362 13.6 Predicting the Physicochemical Properties and Attributes Needed for Developing Design Rules 365 13.7 Conclusion 371 References 371 14 Reducing Carcinogenicity and Mutagenicity Through Mechanism-Based Molecular Design of Chemicals 375 David Y. Lai and Yin-tak Woo 14.1 Introduction 375 14.2 Mechanisms of Chemical Carcinogenesis and Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) 376 14.3 General Molecular Parameters Affecting the Carcinogenic and Mutagenic Potential of Chemicals 378 14.4 Specific Structural Criteria of Different Classes of Chemical Carcinogens and Mutagens 382 14.5 Molecular Design of Chemicals of Low Carcinogenic and Mutagenic Potential 398 14.6 Conclusion 403 14.7 Disclaimer 404 References 404 15 Reducing Ecotoxicity 407 Keith R Solomon and Mark Hanson 15.1 Introduction to Key Aspects of Ecotoxicology 407 15.2 Environmental Fate and Pathways of Exposure to Chemicals in the Environment 413 15.3 Mechanisms of Toxic Action 419 15.4 Examples of Methods That Can Be Used in Designing Chemicals with Reduced Ecological Risks 424 15.5 Overview, Conclusions, and the Path Forward 437 References 440 16 Designing for Non-Persistence 453 Philip H. Howard and Robert S. Boethling 16.1 Introduction 453 16.2 Finding Experimental Data 454 16.3 Predicting Biodegradation from Chemical Structure 461 16.4 Predicting Chemical Hydrolysis 467 16.5 Predicting Atmospheric Degradation by Oxidation and Photolysis 469 16.6 Designing for Biodegradation I: Musk Fragrances Case Study 470 16.7 Designing for Biodegradation II: Biocides Case Study 472 16.8 Designing for Abiotic Degradation: Case Studies for Hydrolysis and Atmospheric Degradation 477 16.9 Conclusion 479 16.10 Disclaimer 479 Abbreviations 480 References 480 17 Reducing Physical Hazards: Encouraging Inherently Safer Production 485 Nicholas A. Ashford 17.1 Introduction 485 17.2 Factors Affecting the Safety of a Production System [1] 485 17.3 Chemical Safety and Accident Prevention: Inherent Safety and Inherently Safer Production 488 17.4 Incentives, Barriers, and Opportunities for the Adoption of Inherently Safer Technology 491 17.5 Elements of an Inherently Safer Production Approach [2, 3] 493 17.6 A Methodology for Inherently Safer Production 495 References 499 18 Interaction of Chemicals with the Endocrine System 501 Thomas G. Osimitz 18.1 Interaction with the Endocrine System 501 18.2 Estrogens 504 18.3 Androgens 515 18.4 Hypothalamic-Pituitary-Thyroid (HPT) Axis 516 18.5 Endocrine Disruptor Data Development Efforts 519 18.6 Research Needs and Future 521 References 522 Index 525

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9783527326396
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 572
  • ID: 9783527326396
  • weight: 1220
  • ISBN10: 3527326391
  • edition: Volume 9

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