Handbook of Heterogenous Kinetics

Handbook of Heterogenous Kinetics

By: Michel Soustelle (author)Hardback

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Description

This book presents all the theoretical and practical basements ofheterogeneous kinetics and reactivity of solids. It applies the newconcepts of reactivity and spatial function, introduced by theauthor, for both nucleation and growth processes, witha unified presentation of the reactivity of bulk and powdersolids, including gas-solid reactions, thermal decompositions,solid-solid reactions, reactions of solid solutions, andcoalescence of solid grains. It also contains many exercisesand problems with solutions included, allowing readers tounderstand and use all the concepts and methods discussed therein.

About Author

Michel SOUSTELLE is a chemical engineer and Emeritus Professor at Ecole des Mines de Saint-Etienne in France. He taught chemical kinetics from postgraduate to master's degree level while also carrying out research in this topic.

Contents

Preface xxi List of Symbols xxv Chapter 1. Definitions and Experimental Approach 1 1.1. Thermal transformations of solids 1 1.2. Classification of transformations 2 1.3. Speed and rate of reaction 6 1.4. Reaction zones of a transformation 10 1.5. Chemical characterizations 12 1.6. Structural characterizations of the solids 13 1.7. Textural characterizations of the solids 14 1.8. Characterization of the evolution of the systems 17 1.9. Influence of various variables on speed 26 Chapter 2. The Real Solid: Structure Elements andQuasi-Chemical Reactions 29 2.1. Structure elements of a solid 30 2.2. Structure elements of a stoichiometric binary solid 35 2.3. Structure elements of a non-stoichiometric binary solid36 2.4. Extension to non-binary compounds 44 2.5. Quasi-chemical reactions 46 2.6. Introduction of foreign elements into a solid 53 Chapter 3. Thermodynamics of Heterogenous Systems 59 3.1. Introduction: aims of thermodynamics 59 3.2. General survey of thermodynamics of equilibrium 60 3.3. Phenomena leading to solid-gas equilibriums 69 3.4. Thermodynamic approach of solid-gas systems 71 3.5. Thermodynamics of systems containing solid phases only76 3.6. Specific study of quasi-chemical equilibriums 77 3.7. Thermodynamics of systems: water vapor-hydrated salts85 3.8. Sequence of transformations, juxtaposition of stabilityarea 93 3.9. Equilibrium of the formation of a solid from a solution96 3.10. Variations in the equilibrium conditions with sizes ofsolid phases 100 Chapter 4. Elementary Steps in Heterogenous Reactions105 4.1. Nature of elementary steps 107 4.2. Elementary reactions at solid-solid interfaces 114 4.3. Elementary reactions at gas-solid interfaces 122 4.4. The apparent energies of activation of interface reactions130 4.5. The areal speed of an interface reaction 130 Chapter 5. Chemical Diffusion 131 5.1. Introduction: nature of diffusing particles in a solid131 5.2. Flux of diffusion and velocity of diffusing particles135 5.3. The laws of Fick136 5.4. Steady state obstructed diffusion 150 5.5. Diffusion under electric field 153 5.6. Diffusion in two mediums separated by a mobile interface161 Chapter 6. Chemical Adsorption169 6.1. Definitions: physical adsorption and chemical adsorption169 6.2. Adsorption thermodynamics and chemisorption equilibrium170 6.3. Kinetics of chemisorption 178 6.4. Chemisorption and structure elements 181 Chapter 7. Mechanisms and Kinetics of a Process 195 7.1. Speeds and reactivities of reactions taking place in only asingle zone 195 7.2. Transformations with several zones 201 7.3. Linear reaction mechanisms 210 7.4. Linear mechanisms in pseudo-steady state modes 213 7.5. Pure modes or modes with a rate-determining step 220 7.6. Mixed modes 234 7.7. Generalization, rate of a linear mechanism in pseudo-steadystate mode 241 7.8. Mixed non-pseudo-steady state modes 242 7.9. Equivalent reaction of a linear subset in localpseudo-steady state mode 245 7.10. Reactions with separable rates 248 7.11. Influence of intensive variables on the kinetic laws250 7.12. Distance from equilibrium for a reaction 252 7.13. Processes concerned in a heterogenous reaction 255 Chapter 8. Nucleation of a New Solid Phase 257 8.1. Clusters 258 8.2. Examples of nucleation diagram 258 8.3. Interfacial energy 260 8.4. Formation molar Gibbs energy of clusters 272 8.5. Kinetics of nucleation 285 Chapter 9. Growth of a Solid Phase 309 9.1. Description of the zones of growth 309 9.2. Direction of the development of phase B during the growth311 9.3. Modes and models for growth 312 9.4. Relationship between the motion velocities of theinterfaces and the chemical growth rate 315 9.5. Methodology to model growth 318 9.6. Expressions of the space functions for the growth of agrain 320 Chapter 10. Transformation by Surface Nucleation and Growth337 10.1. Nucleation, growth, and experimental rate 338 10.2. One-process model with instantaneous nucleation and slowgrowth 339 10.3. Two-process models: nucleation and growth 347 10.4. Two-process model with surface nucleation-radialanisotropic growth 351 10.5. Two-process model with surface nucleation and isotropicgrowth 361 10.6. Non-isobaric and/or non-isothermal kinetics 370 10.7. Powders with granular distributions 375 10.8. Return to the first and second kind of changes of laws376 10.9. Conclusion 377 Chapter 11. Modeling and Experiments 379 11.1. The adequacy between the experimental conditions andmodeling 379 11.2. Expressions of experimental speeds 381 11.3. Derivation of the kinetic curves 388 11.4. The experimental verification of the assumptions 388 11.5. Determination of the morphological model for growth395 11.6. Calculations of the reactivity of growth and the specificfrequency of nucleation 398 11.7. Variations of the kinetic properties with the intensivevariables 399 11.8. Methodology of a study 402 Chapter 12. Granular Coalescence 407 12.1. Qualitative description of the model 408 12.2. Morphological modeling 409 12.3. Structure of the coalescence mechanism 413 12.4. Determination of the space functions 416 12.5. Rate constants and radius of curvature 420 12.6. Reactivity of coalescence of a solid with a singlecomponent 423 12.7. Extensions to the coalescence of solids with severalcomponents 436 12.8. Relations between experiments and modeling 443 12.9. Oswald ripening and reduction in porosity 448 Chapter 13. Decomposition Reactions of Solids 449 13.1. Classifications of decomposition reactions 450 13.2. Extent measurement with the change of the mass 451 13.3. Observed experimental results 456 13.4. Kinetics of growth in decomposition reactions of solids462 13.5. Nucleation in decomposition reactions of solids 478 13.6. Total kinetic curves 484 13.7. Influence of the granular distribution 484 13.8. Normal and abnormal growth 486 Chapter 14. Reactions Between Solids 489 14.1. Classification of the reactions between solids 490 14.2. The modeling assumptions 492 14.3. The experimental measure of the extent of the reactions493 14.4. Reactivities of reactions between solids 494 14.5. Rates of the reactions between powders 508 14.6. Conclusion 541 Chapter 15. Gas-Solid Reactions 543 15.1. Classification of gas-solid reactions 544 15.2. Pure metal gas reactions 546 15.3. Growth process in the reduction of metallic oxides byhydrogen 585 15.4. Growth process of oxidation of metals by water vapor596 Chapter 16. Transformations of Solid Solutions 603 16.1. General information on transformations of solid solutions603 16.2. Oxidation of metal alloys 606 16.3. Variations of the composition of a solid solution with gasformation 640 16.4. Superposition of a variation of stoichiometry anddecomposition 648 Chapter 17. Modeling of Mechanisms 651 17.1. Non-stoichiometry of iron oxide 651 17.2. Stability of calcium carbonate 658 17.3. Thermodynamics of a solid-solid reactions 665 17.4. Hydrates of alumina 669 17.5. Point defects in a metal sulfide 679 17.6. Point defects of an alkaline bromide 689 17.7. Diffusion of a metal into another metal 694 17.8. Generation of atmospheres with very low pressures 701 Chapter 18. Mechanisms and Kinetic Laws 709 18.1 Coalescence of anatase grains 709 18.2. Reaction of a cubic sample 713 18.3. Anisotropic growth 723 18.4. Gas-solid reaction with one-process model 732 18.5. The direction of the development of a layer 738 18.6. Mampel modeling by way of the point of inflection 747 18.7. Nucleation in a reaction of dehydration 753 18.8. Influence of particle size in nucleation-growth approach759 18.9. Decomposition with slow nucleation and slow anisotropicgrowth determined by diffusion 767 19. Mechanisms and Reactivity 779 19.1. Competition oxidation volatilization by TGA779 19.2. Controlled rate thermal analysis (CRTA) 783 19.3. Sulfurization of a metal 789 19.4. Oxidation of a metal and some of its alloys 794 19.5. Reduction of octo-oxide of triuranium by dihydrogen804 19.6. Dehydration of kaolinite 813 19.7. Decomposition of a carbonate of a metal 823 19.8. Reaction between two solids 837 Appendix 1 845 Appendix 2 847 Appendix 3 849 Appendix 4 853 Appendix 5 861 Appendix 6 867 Appendix 7 873 Appendix 8 875 Appendix 9 881 Appendix 10 899 Appendix 11 911 Bibliography 913 Index 919

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781848211001
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 960
  • ID: 9781848211001
  • weight: 1500
  • ISBN10: 1848211007

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