Handbook of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology, Third Edition, provides an in-depth discussion of cleaning, etching and surface conditioning for semiconductor applications. The fundamental physics and chemistry associated with wet and plasma processing are reviewed, including surface and colloidal aspects. This revised edition includes the developments of the last ten years to accommodate a continually involving industry, addressing new technologies and materials, such as germanium and III-V compound semiconductors, and reviewing the various techniques and methods for cleaning and surface conditioning. Chapters include numerous examples of cleaning technique and their results.
The book helps the reader understand the process they are using for their cleaning application and why the selected process works. For example, discussion of the mechanism and physics of contamination, metal, particle and organic includes information on particle removal, metal passivation, hydrogen-terminated silicon and other processes that engineers experience in their working environment. In addition, the handbook assists the reader in understanding analytical methods for evaluating contamination.
The book is arranged in an order that segments the various cleaning techniques, aqueous and dry processing. Sections include theory, chemistry and physics first, then go into detail for the various methods of cleaning, specifically particle removal and metal removal, amongst others.
Karen A. Reinhardt is Principle Consultant at Cameo Consulting in San Jose, California. At Cameo Consulting she assists companies investigating and assessing new and unique cleaning technologies that will allow realization of the ITRS roadmap with respect to smaller geometries, new materials, and the environmental issues associated with current cleaning processes. Karen has published over 30 technical papers ranging from plasma processing to damage characterization and cleaning technology assessment. She has been awarded eight patents. Karen formerly co-chaired the ITRS Surface Preparation Technical Working Group. Prior to forming a contracting and consulting company, Karen was employed at Novellus Systems and Advanced Micro Devices. Karen has a BS degree in Chemistry from the University of California at Riverside and a MS degree in Inorganic Chemistry from Texas Tech University.
Part 1: Introduction and Overview 1. Overview and Evolution of Silicon Wafer Cleaning Technology 2. Overview of Wafer Contamination and Defectivity Part 2: Wet-Chemical Processes 3. Particle Deposition and Adhesion 4. Aqueous Cleaning and Surface Conditioning Processes Part 3: Dry Cleaning Processes 5. Gas-phase Wafer Cleaning Technology 6. Plasma Stripping and Cleaning 7. Cryogenic Aerosols and Supercritical Fluid Cleaning Part 4: Analytical and Control Aspects 8. Detection and Measurement of Particulate Contaminants 9. Surface Chemical Composition and Morphology 10. Ultratrace Impurity and Surface Morphology Analysis