This study of Pope County, Arkansas in the 1850s represents an analysis of the pioneer decade of an upper South region largely settled by yeoman farmers; the presence of slaves constituting approximately ten percent of the population also enables one to view that peculiar institution in a non-plantation environment. As we celebrate the century mark of the 1890 census, which inspired Frederick Jackson Turner's study of the influence of the frontier on the American experience, historians turn anew to examine the influence of that frontier. Today insights provided by computer assisted quantification, "thick description" of social anthropologists and the concept of the New Social History shed additional light on that quest for meaning. This study is a first-rate example of the New Social History in practice. Contents: The Beginnings; Communications and Transportation; Agriculture; Table Fare; Artisans, Business and Professional Activities; Disorder and Crimes; Morbidi Mortality; Marriage; We are Family; Education; Religion; Slavery; and Moving In-Moving Out.