This volume focuses on the role of Judaism, particularly that of Philo, and of Gnosticism, as two important forces shaping the response of early Christianity to the Hellenistic Greco-Roman culture of its time. The sections which examine Hellenistic Judaism investigate themes from Greek philosophy, like 'reason controlling the passions,' which are also crucial in shaping Philo's perception of the feminine. The manner in which Jewish authors of this period attempt to synthesize Old Testament with Greek philosophical themes like creation/cosmology receives specific treatment. Essays dealing with Gnosticism re-examine themes from Greek philosophers like Plato and Aristotle in Gnostic documents, but also look at the role of Hellenistic Judaism with its interests in Sophia. Co-published with the Institute for Christian Studies.