Soldiers and statesmen are forever laying the pavements of good intentions which lead to the hell of military conflict. The process is endless and will not be interrupted before there is societal understanding of the patterns that lead to destruction and a modification of behavior on the basis of that understanding. One such pattern is the predilection of tribes and nations to choose their statesmen from the ranks of military heroes. The transition from soldier to statesman may occur at any phase of the career. This text examines two aspects of the individual dilemma faced by these individualsothe tempering of national dogma with pragmatism and the decision to escalate or de-escalate the level of military conflict. Wherever possible, this examination is made in terms of the writings of, or about, these leaders. Co-published by arrangement with the Hubert H. Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs.