Recent evidence suggests that the prevalence of HIV/AIDS is increasing in the Middle East, North Africa, and Eastern Mediterranean (MENA/EM) region, and that the total number of AIDS-related deaths has risen almost sixfold since the early 1990s. Although this figure is low compared with those for Africa, South Asia, and the Caribbean, low prevalence does not equal low risk. The situation can change rapidly, and even conservative estimates indicate that AIDS poses a real threat to the region's long-term growth. This book reviews the current knowledge available on the prevalence of HIV/AIDS in the MENA/EM region with the goal of stimulating discussion among policy- and decision makers. In other regions, early investments in good surveillance and effective prevention programs have proved to be relative bargains, compared with the costs of a full-blown epidemic. As the authors argue, the time to act is now, whole prevalence levels are still low. To that end, they make specific recommendations and offer best practices and case studies from around the world. This volume is the product of the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS), the World Health Organization (Eastern Mediterranean Regional Office), and the World Bank. It will be of particular interest to those in the fields of public health, social policy, and economic development, as well as to students and scholars of the region.