Cardiovascular (CV) response consists of changes in CV parameters such as heart rate, blood pressure, and heart contraction force in reaction to an event or set of events. It is significant for multiple reasons, perhaps most notably because research suggests that it affects the development and progression of heart disease. Disease models vary, but most assume that characteristically strong and prolonged CV responses confer health risk. Psychologists have long suspected linkages between motivational variables and CV response. However, formal study of the linkages was limited for many years. Motivationally based CV response research now flourishes, with researchers in various disciplines considering the role of relevant variables such as effort, incentives, and goals. This book conveys the amount and diversity of motivationally based CV response research that currently is being conducted. Chapters discuss mechanisms of motivational influence on CV response and apply motivational approaches to studying CV response in different life circumstances. Health implications are considered throughout. The volume will appeal to scholars and practitioners in numerous specialty areas, including motivation, emotion, psychophysiology, medical/health psychology, social/personality psychology and human factors/ergonomics. It will be a vital research source and could serve as a text or supplement in classes that address motivational, psychophysiological and health issues.