Over the last decades, most countries have improved levels of human development. But progress maybe slowing as uncertainty intensifies globally. This report examines vulnerabilities that endanger human development, focusing especially on the poorest. Most threats are structural and persistent and linked with life cycle vulnerabilities. Identifying policy measures to reduce threats and increase human resilience is therefore a high priority. The report sets out synergistic proposals including universal public provisioning of basic services over the life cycle to maintain and strengthen human capabilities, full employment and social protection policies. It highlights collective action and international cooperation to address global vulnerabilities and ensure sustainable progress.