Human Memory: Structures and Images

Human Memory: Structures and Images

By: Mary B. Howes (author)Paperback

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Description

Human Memory: Structures and Images offers students a comprehensive overview of research in human memory. Providing a theoretical background for the research, author Mary B. Howes uses a clear and accessible format to cover three major areas: mainstream experimental research; naturalistic research; and work in the domains of the amnesias, malfunctions of memory, and neuroscience. Key Features: - Offers extensive coverage of naturalistic research: Areas of current naturalistic research, such as eyewitness testimony and courtroom procedures are included, as is the functioning of memory under atypical or abnormal conditions. The book also discusses the issue of traumatic and repressed memories. In addition, experimental research, including simulation with computers is covered and an appendix on Computer Functioning is available online. Emphasizes the constructivist position: offering greater coverage than other books on the subject, this text stresses constructivist ideas and examines the debate between constructivist and nonconstructivist models of memory so that readers can emerge with a clear understanding of the issues underlying this opposition.Provides historical material needed to properly understand current work: A prologue introduces students to the nature of human memory, and a concluding epilogue integrates themes and issues such as strong recall, forgetting, memory change, and false memories from the book in a obig pictureo sort of way. Key terms are highlighted within the text and chapters end with brief summaries and discussion questions. Intended Audience: This text is designed for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses such as Memory, Human Memory, Memory and Cognition, and Memory and Forgetting.

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About Author

Mary B. Howes received her Ph.D. in 1979 from New York University with a concentration in Cognition. She specializes in cognitive psychology with particular emphasis on early memory. She teaches courses on statistics, cognition, and memory and is author of the text "The Psychology of Human Cognition: Mainstream and Genevan Traditions" (Allyn & Bacon 1990).

Contents

Preface: An Introduction to the Nature of Human Memory 1. Memory: Historical and Current Perspectives The Classic Model of Memory: Aristotle Empiricism Rationalism Constructivism Computer Models The Study of Memory Methodology and Research Traditions Summary 2. Mainstream Foundations: The Associative Model of Memory Ebbinghaus: Origins of the Associative Model The Verbal Learning Tradition List Learning and Serial Recall Curves Interference Theory Consolidation Theory The Classic Associative Tradition Interference Theory 1940s-1980s Summary Discussion 3. Sensory Memory The Information Processing Tradition Sensory Memory: General Properties Masking Output Interference Echoic Memory Summary Discussion 4. Verbal Short-Term Memory General Properties of Verbal Short-Term Memory Codes in Verbal STM Word Length The Events that Occur When Information Enters Verbal STM Forgetting in Verbal STM Factors that Eliminate or Diminish Short-Term Forgetting Cues and Verbal STM Research Into Manipulations that Influence STM Recall Models of Verbal Short-Term Memory Summary Discussion 5. Working Memory Attention and Working Memory Emergence of the Concept of Working Memory from Short-Term Memory Models of Working Memory: Structural Assumptions Capacity Theories of Working Memory Working Memory as Strongly Activated Content Working Memory in ACT Loss of Information from WM: Ongoing Research A Cueing Model of WM WM as Attentional Capacity The Genevan View Inhibition of Unwanted Material Domain-Specific Versus General Capacity Assumptions WM and Phenomenological Experience Summary Discussion 6. Long-Term Memory: Foundations Memory Stores Spread of Encoding Versus Meaningfulness Entry of Information into LTM Retrieval of Information from LTM: Cues Separate Memory Stores for Different Kinds of Information Encoding Specificity Single-Stage and Two-Stage Models of Retrieval Recognition Memory Signal Detection Theory Summary Discussion 7. Long-Term Memory: Ongoing Research Spreading Activation Models Propositional Coding: The Representation of Semantic Content Secondary Cues, Recursive Processing, and Ecphory Cyclical Retrieval/Global Memory Models Priming and Spreading Activation Models False Memory for Word Items Context and Memory Output Interference in LTM Summary Discussion 8. Constructivism Constructivism: Basic Tenets Bartlett Piaget: The Genevan View Constructivism in Mainstream Psychology Summary 9. Memory Change: Alterations in the Components of a Memory Postevent Information and Memory Change Nonconstructivist Models of Memory Change Constructivist Models of Memory Change Research Data Relating to Constructivist and Nonconstructivist Models Is Incorrect Information Incorporated into the Experienced Memory Source Monitering Inference and Suggestion in Eyewitness Recollection Memory for Faces Eyewitness and Investigative Procedures Emotion and Eyewitness Testimony Summary Discussion 10. Long-Term Memory: Higher Order Structures Inferences Spatial Contexts Context Effects: A Thoery of Spatial Relations, Motions, and Constraint Mental Models Story Schemas Schank's Model of Knowledge Structures and Goal-Based Theory Kintsch's Model of Prose Comprehension Inferences, the Situation Model, and Knowledge Structures: Ongoing Research What Inferences are Generated in Natural Text Comprehension? Summary Discussion 11. Autobiographical Memory First Recollections Causes of Childhood Amnesia Fragment Memories The Nature of Autobiographical Memory Hierarchical Structure in Autobiographical Memory Access and Retrieval in Autobiographical Memory Accuracy and Distortion in Adult Recall Goals, Perspective, and Meaning Positive and Negative Affect in Episodic Memory The Nature of Flashbulb Memory Summary Discussion 12. Memory for Images The Strength of Visual Memory Weakness of Visual Memory The Debate Over Coding Propositional Versus Analog Codes: The Experimental Research Neuroimaging Studies Perception and Memory Images: Deployment of the Same Neural Structures Kosslyn's Theory of Image Generation Eidetic Imagery Hypermnesia 13. Implicit Memory Perceptual and Semantic Priming Implicit Memory: Major Issues Structural/Activation Theory Processing/Episodic Models of Priming Unconscious Perception and Priming Interference in Implicit Memory Implicit Memory as a Separate Memory System Priming as Transfer of Processing Associative Learning Monitoring of Frequency and Temporal Information Complex Associative Learning Implicit Processing and Emotion Summary Discussion 14. Traumatic Memory and False Memory Memory and PTSD Controlled Observational Research Repression, Dissociation, and Consolidation Failure An Epidemic of Recovered Memories Satanic Rituals Individuals Accused of Child Abuse Recovered Memories: Empirical Findings Trauma Associated with Incarceration: Memories of Concentration Camp Survivors Memories of Crimes and Disasters False Memories in Natural Contexts False Memories in Young Children Hypnosis and Memory Summary Discussion 15. Disorders of Memory The Amnesic Syndrome The Amnesic Syndrome: Theoretical Models Deficit in Short-Term Recall Frontal Lobe Damage Loss of Memory for Selective Information Reduplicative Paramnesia and Capgras Syndrome Remediation Memory and Aging Dementia Summary Discussion 16. Neuroscience and Memory The Neuron The Human Brain Neuroimaging Techniques Memory Content and Distributed Processing Strcutures that Mediate Memory Memory Functions and Brain Structures: Neuroimaging Data Storage of Declarative Memory Content: Perceptual Structures Function and Location Emotion and Memory Intermediate Memory 17. Afterword Why Do We Forget? The Status of Information Coded on LTM Meaning Codes and Higher Order Structures Memory Change Memories Discussion

Product Details

  • publication date: 18/01/2007
  • ISBN13: 9781412916295
  • Format: Paperback
  • Number Of Pages: 472
  • ID: 9781412916295
  • weight: 803
  • ISBN10: 1412916291

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