Human Neuroanatomy (2nd Revised edition)

Human Neuroanatomy (2nd Revised edition)

By: James R. Augustine (author)Hardback

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Description

Human Neuroanatomy: An Introduction, 2nd Edition is a comprehensive overview of the anatomy of the human brain and spinal cord. The book is written at a level to be of use as a text for advanced students and a foundational reference for researchers, clinicians in the field. Building on the foundations of first edition, this revision looks to increase user-friendliness and clinical applicability through improved figures and the addition of illustrative case studies. Written by James R. Augustine, with decades of experience teaching and researching in the field, Human Neuroanatomy, authoritatively covers this fundamental area of study within the neurosciences.

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About Author

James R. Augustine is Professor Emeritus in the School of Medicine at University of South Carolina, Columbia, South Carolina, USA.

Contents

Preface xiii About the companion website xv Chapter 1 Introduction to the Nervous System 1 1.1 Neurons 1 1.2 Classification of Neurons 4 1.3 The Synapse 5 1.4 Neuroglial Cells 6 1.5 Axonal Transport 9 1.6 Degeneration and Regeneration 10 1.7 Neural Transplantation 14 Further Reading 14 Chapter 2 Development of the Nervous System 17 2.1 First Week 19 2.2 Second Week 20 2.3 Third Week 20 2.4 Fourth Week 21 2.5 Fifth Week 24 2.6 Vulnerability of the Developing Nervous System 26 2.7 Congenital Malformations of the Nervous System 27 Further Reading 29 Chapter 3 The Spinal Cord 31 3.1 Embryological Considerations 31 3.2 Gross Anatomy 34 3.3 Nuclear Groups Gray Matter 37 3.4 Functional Classes of Neurons 39 3.5 Funiculi/Fasciculi/Tracts White Matter 40 3.6 Spinal Reflexes 41 3.7 Spinal Meninges and Related Spaces 42 3.8 Spinal Cord Injury 43 3.9 Blood Supply to the Spinal Cord 44 Further Reading 44 Chapter 4 The Brain Stem 47 4.1 External Features 47 4.2 Cerebellum and Fourth Ventricle 50 4.3 Organization of Brain Stem Neuronal Columns 52 4.4 Internal Features 54 Further Reading 65 Chapter 5 The Forebrain 67 5.1 Telencephalon 67 5.2 Diencephalon 77 5.3 Cerebral White Matter 78 Further Reading 79 Chapter 6 Introduction to Ascending Sensory Paths 81 6.1 Receptors 81 6.2 Classification of Receptors by Modality 81 6.3 Classification of Receptors by Distribution and Function 84 6.4 Structural Classification of Receptors 84 6.5 Reflex Circuits 88 6.6 General Sensory Paths 89 6.7 Organization of General Sensory Paths 89 Further Reading 92 Chapter 7 Paths for Pain and Temperature 95 7.1 Path for Superficial Pain and Temperature from the Body 95 7.2 Path for Visceral Pain from the Body 102 7.3 The Trigeminal Nuclear Complex 107 7.4 Path for Superficial Pain and Thermal Extremes from the Head 108 7.5 Path for Thermal Discrimination from the Head 111 7.6 Somatic Afferent Components of VII, IX, and X 113 7.7 Trigeminal Neuralgia 113 7.8 Glossopharyngeal Neuralgia 114 Further Reading 114 Chapter 8 Paths for Touch, Pressure, Proprioception, and Vibration 117 8.1 Path for General Tactile Sensation from the Body 117 8.2 Path for Tactile Discrimination, Pressure, Proprioception, and Vibration from the Body 120 8.3 Path for Tactile Discrimination from the Head 130 8.4 Path for General Tactile Sensation from the Head 131 8.5 Path for Proprioception, Pressure, and Vibration from the Head 133 8.6 Trigeminal Motor Component 135 8.7 Certain Trigeminal Reflexes 136 Further Reading 138 Chapter 9 The Reticular Formation 141 9.1 Structural Aspects 141 9.2 Ascending Reticular System 146 9.3 Descending Reticular System 149 9.4 Functional Aspects of the Reticular Formation 149 Further Reading 153 Chapter 10 The Auditory System 155 10.1 Gross Anatomy 155 10.2 The Ascending Auditory Path 158 10.3 Descending Auditory Connections 164 10.4 Injury to the Auditory Path 165 10.5 Cochlear Implants 167 10.6 Auditory Brain Stem Implants 167 Further Reading 167 Chapter 11 The Vestibular System 171 11.1 Gross Anatomy 171 11.2 The Ascending Vestibular Path 173 11.3 Other Vestibular Connections 180 11.4 The Efferent Component of the Vestibular System 182 11.5 Afferent Projections to the Vestibular Nuclei 182 11.6 Vertigo 183 Further Reading 184 Chapter 12 The Visual System 187 12.1 Retina 187 12.2 Visual Path 191 12.3 Injuries to the Visual System 200 Further Reading 204 Chapter 13 Ocular Movements and Visual Reflexes 207 13.1 Ocular Movements 207 13.2 Conjugate Ocular Movements 207 13.3 Extraocular Muscles 209 13.4 Innervation of the Extraocular Muscles 210 13.5 Anatomical Basis of Conjugate Ocular Movements 215 13.6 Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus 216 13.7 Vestibular Connections and Ocular Movements 216 13.8 Injury to the Medial Longitudinal Fasciculus 218 13.9 Vestibular Nystagmus 218 13.10 The Reticular Formation and Ocular Movements 219 13.11 Congenital Nystagmus 219 13.12 Ocular Bobbing 219 13.13 Examination of the Vestibular System 219 13.14 Visual Reflexes 221 Further Reading 225 Chapter 14 The Thalamus 227 14.1 Introduction 227 14.2 Nuclear Groups of the Thalamus 228 14.3 Injuries to the Thalamus 238 14.4 Mapping the Human Thalamus 238 14.5 Stimulation of the Human Thalamus 239 14.6 The Thalamus as a Neurosurgical Target 239 Further Reading 240 Chapter 15 Lower Motor Neurons and the Pyramidal System 243 15.1 Regions Involved in Motor Activity 243 15.2 Lower Motor Neurons 243 15.3 Pyramidal System 247 Further Reading 256 Chapter 16 The Extrapyramidal System and Cerebellum 259 16.1 Extrapyramidal System 259 16.2 Cerebellum 267 16.3 Input to the Cerebellum Through the Peduncles 271 16.4 Input to the Cerebellum 272 16.5 Cerebellar Output 273 16.6 Cerebellar Circuitry 273 16.7 Common Discharge Paths 273 16.8 Cerebellar Functions 274 16.9 Manifestations of Injuries to the Motor System 275 16.10 Decorticate Versus Decerebrate Rigidity 278 16.11 Epilogue 278 Further Reading 279 Chapter 17 The Olfactory and Gustatory Systems 283 17.1 The Olfactory System 283 17.2 The Gustatory System 290 Further Reading 295 Chapter 18 The Limbic System 299 18.1 Historical Aspects 299 18.2 Anatomy of the Limbic System 300 18.3 Cyclic Paths of the Limbic System 306 18.4 The Human Limbic System: A Case Study 306 18.5 Descending Limbic Paths 307 18.6 Functional Aspects of the Human Limbic System 307 18.7 Limbic System Disorders 308 18.8 Injuries to Limbic Constituents 309 18.9 Psychosurgery of the Limbic System 309 Further Reading 310 Chapter 19 The Hypothalamus 313 19.1 Hypothalamic Zones (Medial to Lateral) 313 19.2 Hypothalamic Regions (Anterior to Posterior) 315 19.3 Hypothalamic Nuclei 315 19.4 Fiber Connections 321 19.5 Functions of the Hypothalamus 322 Further Reading 324 Chapter 20 The Autonomic Nervous System 327 20.1 Historical Aspects 327 20.2 Structural Aspects 328 20.3 Somatic Efferents Versus Visceral Efferents 331 20.4 Visceral Afferents 331 20.5 Regulation of the Autonomic Nervous System 333 20.6 Disorders of the Autonomic Nervous System 333 Further Reading 334 Chapter 21 The Cerebral Hemispheres 337 21.1 Facts and Figures 337 21.2 Cortical Neurons 338 21.3 Cortical Layers 338 21.4 Cortical Columns (Microarchitecture) 343 21.5 Functional Aspects of the Cerebral Cortex 343 21.6 Cerebral Dominance, Lateralization, and Asymmetry 343 21.7 Frontal Lobe 343 21.8 Parietal Lobe 347 21.9 Occipital Lobe 354 21.10 Temporal Lobe 354 21.11 Insula 357 21.12 Aphasia 358 21.13 Alexia 360 21.14 Apraxia 360 21.15 Gerstmann s Syndrome 360 21.16 Agnosia 360 21.17 Dyslexia 360 Further Reading 361 Chapter 22 Blood Supply to the Central Nervous System 365 22.1 Cerebral Circulation 365 22.2 Aortic Arch, Brachiocephalic Trunk, and Subclavian Vessels 366 22.3 Vertebral Basilar Arterial System 366 22.4 Blood Supply to the Spinal Cord 368 22.5 Blood Supply to the Brain Stem and Cerebellum 372 22.6 Common Carotid Artery 378 22.7 Blood Supply to the Cerebral Hemispheres 379 22.8 Cerebral Arterial Circle 383 22.9 Embryological Considerations 384 22.10 Vascular Injuries 384 Further Reading 384 Chapter 23 The Meninges, Ventricular System, and Cerebrospinal Fluid 387 23.1 The Cranial Meninges and Related Spaces 387 23.2 Ventricular System 391 23.3 Cerebrospinal Fluid 393 Further Reading 394 Figure and Table References 395 Index 399

Product Details

  • publication date: 05/11/2014
  • ISBN13: 9780470961612
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 432
  • ID: 9780470961612
  • weight: 1392
  • ISBN10: 0470961619
  • edition: 2nd Revised edition

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