In recent years, influential studies have shown that the activities of human rights organizations are central in convincing violating governments to improve their practices. Yet some governments continue to get away with human rights violations despite mobilizations against them. In Human Rights and State Security: Indonesia and the Philippines, Anja Jetschke considers the impact of transnational human rights advocacy on the process of human rights reform and democratization in two countries that have been successful in resisting international human rights pressure.
Jetschke details the effects of campaigns waged by international and domestic NGOs, foreign governments, local opposition leaders, and international organizations. She argues that the literature on transnational advocacy overlooks the ability of governments to justify and excuse human rights violations in their public dialogue with human rights organizations. Describing efforts of international and domestic human rights advocates to protect the rights of various groups, the case studies in this book suggest that governments successfully block or evade pressures if they invoke threats to state security. Jetschke finds that state security puts into play a set of powerful international norms related to sovereignty-a state's right to territorial integrity, the secular organization of the state, or a government's lack of control over the means of organized violence. If governments frame persuasive arguments around these norms, they can effectively mobilize competing domestic and international groups and trump human rights advocacy. Human Rights and State Security shows that the content and arguments on behalf of human rights matter and provide opportunities for both governments and civil society organizations to advance their agendas.
Anja Jetschke teaches political science at the University of Freiburg.
1. Human Rights and State Security in International Relations 2. International Norms and Their Contestation in Human Rights Dialogues 3. Indonesia's New Order 1965-1978: Transnational Advocacy and State Security under Military-Led Modernization 4. The Philippine New Society 1972-1986: Transnational Advocacy and Human Rights Change 5. Indonesia's New Order 1986-1998: Transnational Advocacy and Human Rights Change 6. Subcontracted Violence in the Philippines 1986-1992: Excusing Violations 7. Excuses and Paramilitary Violence in East Timor and Indonesia 1999-2005 8. The Philippines 1999-2008: Counter-Terrorism and Human Rights Violations 9. Contested Norms and Human Rights Change Notes Abbreviations References