The last decades of the 20th century witnessed a massive wave of human rights activities, which was positively received by both the general public and the ruling elites of several societies. Many African governments recognized the human rights groups, although the latter were often placed under tight security surveillance, or incorporated into government-controlled structures at the expense of their original or autonomous roles. In political terms, this ghosting process comprises the usurpation of the modern democratic government and civil society by authoritative exclusionary policies. As occurred in many cases, the ghosting policies preempt the democratic context of popular activities by replacing them with state's agenda to maintain only the authoritative structure and the security functioning of the state. This subservient relationship is clearly evident in the replacement of democratic regimes by military coup in the Sudan, as well as in most African nations, since independence to the present time.
The hands of colonialism - and now globalization - are clearly reflected in human rights issues in Africa: governments known for inefficient, rude, and chaotic bureaucratic structures; selfish leaders who stir ethnic and religious conflict for personal gain; rapid, undirected urbanization; the exodus of intellectuals and experts; poor educational and health care systems; avaricious multinational corporations that control capital and technology pivotal to development; and staggering external debt. This book addresses the issues of human rights in Africa and confronts these challenges.
Professor Mahgoub El-Tigani Mahmoud received his Ph.D. from Brown University and is a member of the faculty at Tennessee State University.
Commendatory Preface I; Ghosting Penal Hoods by Authority Tools 1; Africa in the 1990s 19; Popular Movement versus Elite Government 37; Women and Governance 73; Women and Religion 95; Outside Human Rights and Effective Coordination 117; Escape Mechanisms on Reporting Human Rights Abuses 131; Epilogue 151; Appendices 177; Bibliography 205; Index 219.