National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) - human rights commissions and ombudsmen - have gained recognition as a possible missing link in the transmission and implementation of international human rights norms at the domestic level. They are also increasingly accepted as important participants in global and regional forums where international norms are produced. By collecting innovative work from experts spanning international law, political science, sociology and human rights practice, this book critically examines the significance of this relatively new class of organizations. It focuses, in particular, on the prospects of these institutions to effectuate state compliance and social change. Consideration is given to the role of NHRIs in delegitimizing - though sometimes legitimizing - governments' poor human rights records and in mobilizing - though sometimes demobilizing - civil society actors. The volume underscores the broader implications of such cross-cutting research for scholarship and practice in the fields of human rights and global affairs in general.
Ryan Goodman is the Anne and Joel Ehrenkranz Professor of Law and Chair of the Center for Human Rights and Global Justice at New York University Law School, and Professor of Politics and Professor of Sociology at NYU. He was previously the Rita E. Hauser Professor of Human Rights and Humanitarian Law and Director of the Human Rights Program at Harvard Law School. His publications include International Human Rights in Context (with Henry Steiner and Philip Alston), Socializing States: Promoting Human Rights through International Law (with Derek Jinks) and Understanding Social Action, Promoting Human Rights (with Derek Jinks and Andrew Woods). Thomas Pegram is a Research Fellow at New York University School of Law with a focus on the interdisciplinary research of National Human Rights Institutions (NHRIs) and international law, including human rights and humanitarian law. He was the NHRI Fellow of Harvard Law School's Human Rights Program from 2008 to 2009. His recent publications have appeared in Human Rights Quarterly, Oxford Development Studies and the Cambridge Journal of Latin American Studies.
1. National human rights institutions, state compliance, and social change Ryan Goodman and Thomas Pegram; Part I. NHRIs in Theory and Reality: 2. National human rights institutions and state compliance Sonia Cardenas; 3. The shifting boundaries of NHRI definition in the international system Linda C. Reif; 4. Evaluating NHRIs: considering structure, mandate, and impact Julie Mertus; Part II. NHRI Performance: Global, Regional, and National Domains: 5. National human rights institutions and the international human rights system Chris Sidoti; 6. National human rights institutions in anglophone Africa: legalism, popular agency, and the 'voices of suffering' Obiora Chinedu Okafor; 7. National human rights institutions in the Asia Pacific region: change agents under conditions of uncertainty Catherine Renshaw and Kieren Fitzpatrick; 8. National human rights institutions in Central and Eastern Europe: the ombudsman as agent of international law Richard Carver; 9. National human rights institutions in Latin America: politics and institutionalization Thomas Pegram; Part III. NHRIs and Compliance: Beyond Enforcement: 10. The societalization of horizontal accountability: rights advocacy and the defensor del pueblo de la nacion in Argentina Enrique Peruzzotti; 11. Through pressure or persuasion?: Explaining compliance with the resolutions of the Bolivian defensor del pueblo Fredrik Uggla; Part IV. Final Reflections: 12. Tainted origins and uncertain outcomes: evaluating NHRIs Peter Rosenblum; 13. National human rights institutions, opportunities, and activism David S. Meyer.