Hybrid Materials: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

Hybrid Materials: Synthesis, Characterization and Applications

By: Guido Kickelbick (editor)Hardback

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Hybrid materials have currently a great impact on numerous future developments including nanotechnology. This book presents an overview about the different types of materials, clearly structured into synthesis, characterization and applications. A perfect starting point for everyone interested in the field, but also for the specialist as a source of high quality information.

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About Author

Guido Kickelbick is professor at the Institute of Materials Chemistry of the Vienna University of Technology, Austria. Born in Hamm, he studied chemistry at the University of Wurzburg, Germany, gaining his PhD in 1997 under Ulrich Schubert on sol-gel derived surface-modified metal oxo clusters. He was subsequently awarded a post-doctoral fellowship with Krzysztof Matyjaszewski at the Center for Macromolecular Engineering at the Carnegie Mellon University in Pittsburgh, USA, on the application of controlled radical polymerization in the formation of hybrid materials. In 1998 he returned to the Vienna University of Technology where he has since worked in the field of hybrid materials and nanocomposites, as well as surface-functionalized nanoparticles with a particular focus on the combination of organic polymers with inorganic components. Professor Kickelbick has published more than 150 papers on different aspects of inorganic, polymer and materials chemistry.


1 Introduction to Hybrid Materials (Guido Kickelbick). 1.1 Introduction. 1.1.1 Natural Origins. 1.1.2 The Development of Hybrid Materials. 1.1.3 De.nition: Hybrid Materials and Nanocomposites. 1.1.4 Advantages of Combining Inorganic and Organic Species in One Material. 1.1.5 Interface-determined Materials. 1.1.6 The Role of the Interaction Mechanisms. 1.2 Synthetic Strategies towards Hybrid Materials. 1.2.1 In situ Formation of Inorganic Materials. Sol-Gel Process. Nonhydrolytic Sol-Gel Process. Sol-Gel Reactions of Non-Silicates. Hybrid Materials by the Sol-Gel Process. Hybrid Materials Derived by Combining the Sol-Gel Approach and Organic Polymers. 1.2.2 Formation of Organic Polymers in Presence of Preformed Inorganic Materials. 1.2.3 Hybrid Materials by Simultaneous Formation of Both Components. 1.2.4 Building Block Approach. Inorganic Building Blocks. Organic Building Blocks. 1.3 Structural Engineering. 1.4 Properties and Applications. 1.5 Characterization of Materials. 1.6 Summary. 2 Nanocomposites of Polymers and Inorganic Particles (Walter Caseri). 2.1 Introduction. 2.2 Consequences of Very Small Particle Sizes. 2.3 Historical Reports on Inorganic Nanoparticles and Polymer Nanocomposites. 2.4 Preparation of Polymer Nanocomposites. 2.4.1 Mixing of Dispersed Particles with Polymers in Liquids. 2.4.2 Mixing of Particles with Monomers Followed by Polymerization. 2.4.3 Nanocomposite Formation by means of Molten or Solid Polymers. 2.4.4 Concomitant Formation of Particles and Polymers. 2.5 Properties and Applications of Polymer Nanocomposites. 2.5.1 Properties. 2.5.2 Applications. Catalysts. Gas Sensors. Materials with Improved Flame Retardance. Optical Filters. Dichroic Materials. High and Low Refractive Index Materials. 2.6 Summary. 3 Hybrid Organic/Inorganic Particles (Elodie Bourgeat-Lami). 3.1 Introduction. 3.2 Methods for creating Particles. 3.2.1 Polymer Particles. Oil-in-water Suspension Polymerization. Precipitation and Dispersion Polymerizations. Oil-in-water Emulsion Polymerization. Oil-in-water Miniemulsion Polymerization. Oil-in-water Microemulsion Polymerization. 3.2.2 Vesicles, Assemblies and Dendrimers. Vesicles. Block Copolymer Assemblies. Dendrimers. 3.2.3 Inorganic Particles. Metal Oxide Particles. Metallic Particles. Semiconductor Nanoparticles. Synthesis in Microemulsion. 3.3 Hybrid Nanoparticles Obtained Through Self-assembly Techniques. 3.3.1 Electrostatically Driven Self-assembly. Heterocoagulation. Layer-by-layer Assembly. 3.3.2 Molecular Recognition Assembly. 3.4 O/I Nanoparticles Obtained by in situ Polymerization Techniques. 3.4.1 Polymerizations Performed in the Presence of Preformed Mineral Particles. Surface Modi.cation of Inorganic Particles. Polymerizations in Multiphase Systems. Surface-initiated Polymerizations. 3.4.2 In situ Formation of Minerals in the Presence of Polymer Colloids. Polymer Particles Templating. Block Copolymers, Dendrimers and Microgels Templating. 3.5 Hybrid Particles Obtained by Simultaneously Reacting Organic Monomers and Mineral Precursors. 3.5.1 Poly(organosiloxane/vinylic) Copolymer Hybrids. 3.5.2 Polyorganosiloxane Colloids. 3.6 Conclusion. 4 Intercalation Compounds and Clay Nanocomposites (Jin Zhu and Charles A. Wilkie). 4.1 Introduction. 4.2 Polymer Lamellar Material Nanocomposites. 4.2.1 Types of Lamellar Nano-additives. 4.2.2 Montmorillonite Layer Structure. 4.2.3 Modi.cation of Clay. 4.3 Nanostructures and Characterization. 4.3.1 X-ray Diffraction and Transmission Electron Microscopy to Probe Morphology. 4.3.2 Other Techniques to Probe Morphology. 4.4 Preparation of Polymer-clay Nanocomposites. 4.4.1 Solution Mixing. 4.4.2 Polymerization. 4.4.3 Melt Compounding. 4.5 Polymer-graphite and Polymer Layered Double Hydroxide Nanocomposites. 4.5.1 Nanocomposites Based on Layered Double Hydroxides and Salts. 4.6 Properties of Polymer Nanocomposites. 4.7 Potential Applications. 4.8 Conclusion and Prospects for the Future. 5 Porous Hybrid Materials (Nicola Husing). 5.1 General Introduction and Historical Development. 5.1.1 De.nition of Terms. 5.1.2 Porous (Hybrid) Matrices. Microporous Materials: Zeolites. Mesoporous Materials: M41S and FSM Materials. Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs). 5.2 General Routes towards Hybrid Materials. 5.2.1 Post-synthesis Modi.cation of the Final Dried Porous Product by Gaseous, Liquid or Dissolved Organic or Organometallic Species. 5.2.2 Liquid-phase Modi.cation in the Wet Nanocomposite Stage or - for Mesostructured Materials and Zeolites - Prior to Removal of the Template. 5.2.3 Addition of Molecular, but Nonreactive Compounds to the Precursor Solution. 5.2.4 Co-condensation Reactions by the use of Organically-substituted Coprecursors. 5.2.5 The Organic Entity as an Integral Part of the Porous Framework. 5.3 Classi.cation of Porous Hybrid Materials by the Type of Interaction. 5.3.1 Incorporation of Organic Functions Without Covalent Attachment to the Porous Host. Doping with Small Molecules. Doping with Polymeric Species. Incorporation of Biomolecules. 5.3.2 Incorporation of Organic Functions with Covalent Attachment to the Porous Host. Grafting Reactions. Co-condensation Reactions. 5.3.3 The Organic Function as an Integral Part of the Porous Network Structure. ZOL and PMO: Zeolites with Organic Groups as Lattice and Periodically Mesostructured Organosilicas. Metal-Organic Frameworks. 5.4 Applications and Properties of Porous Hybrid Materials. 6 Sol-Gel Processing of Hybrid Organic-Inorganic Materials Based on Polysilsesquioxanes (Douglas A. Loy). 6.1 Introduction. 6.1.1 De.nition of Terms. 6.2 Forming Polysilsesquioxanes. 6.2.1 Hydrolysis and Condensation Chemistry. 6.2.2 Alternative Polymerization Chemistries. 6.2.3 Characterizing Silsesquioxane Sol-Gels with NMR. 6.2.4 Cyclization in Polysilsesquioxanes. 6.3 Type I Structures: Polyhedral Oligosilsesquioxanes (POSS). 6.3.1 Homogenously Functionalized POSS. 6.3.2 Stability of Siloxane Bonds in Silsesquioxanes. 6.4 Type II Structures: Amorphous Oligo- and Polysilsesquioxanes. 6.4.1 Gelation of Polysilsesquioxanes. 6.4.2 Effects of pH on Gelation. 6.4.3 Polysilsesquioxane Gels. 6.4.4 Polysilsesquioxane-Silica Copolymers. 6.5 Type III: Bridged Polysilsesquioxanes. 6.5.1 Molecular Bridges. 6.5.2 Macromolecule-bridged Polysilsesquioxanes. 6.6 Summary. 6.6.1 Properties of Polysilsesquioxanes. 6.6.2 Existing and Potential Applications. 7 Natural and Artificial Hybrid Biomaterials (Heather A. Currie, Siddharth V. Patwardhan, Carole C. Perry, Paul Roach, Neil J. Shirtcliffe). 7.1 Introduction. 7.2 Building Blocks. 7.2.1 Inorganic Building Blocks. Nucleation and Growth. 7.2.2 Organic Building Blocks. Proteins and DNA. Carbohydrates. Lipids. Collagen. 7.3 Biomineralization. 7.3.1 Introduction. Biomineral Types and Occurrence. Functions of Biominerals. Properties of Biominerals. 7.3.2 Control Strategies in Biomineralization. 7.3.3 The Role of the Organic Phase in Biomineralization. 7.3.4 Mineral or Precursor - Organic Phase Interactions. 7.3.5 Examples of Non-bonded Interactions in Bioinspired Silicification. Effect of Electrostatic Interactions. Effect of Hydrogen Bonding Interactions. Effect of the Hydrophobic Effect. 7.3.6 Roles of the Organic Phase in Biomineralization. 7.4 Bioinspired Hybrid Materials. 7.4.1 Natural Hybrid Materials. Bone. Dentin. Nacre. Wood. 7.4.2 Arti.cial Hybrid Biomaterials. Ancient materials. Structural Materials. Non-structural Materials. 7.4.3 Construction of Arti.cial Hybrid Biomaterials. Organic Templates to Dictate Shape and Form. Integrated Nanoparticle-Biomolecule Hybrid Systems. Routes to Bio-nano Hybrid Systems. 7.5 Responses. 7.5.1 Biological Performance. 7.5.2 Protein Adsorption. 7.5.3 Cell Adhesion. 7.5.4 Evaluation of Biomaterials. 7.6 Summary. 8 Medical Applications of Hybrid Materials (Kanji Tsuru, Satoshi Hayakawa, and Akiyoshi Osaka). 8.1 Introduction. 8.1.1 Composites, Solutions, and Hybrids. 8.1.2 Arti.cial Materials for Repairing Damaged Tissues and Organs. 8.1.3 Tissue-Material Interactions. 8.1.4 Material-Tissue Bonding; Bioactivity. 8.1.5 Blood-compatible Materials. 8.2 Bioactive Inorganic-Organic Hybrids. 8.2.1 Concepts of Designing Hybrids. 8.2.2 Concepts of Organic-Inorganic Hybrid Scaffolds and Membranes. 8.2.3 PDMS-Silica Hybrids. 8.2.4 Organoalkoxysilane Hybrids. 8.2.5 Gelatin-Silicate Hybrids. 8.2.6 Chitosan-Silicate Hybrids. 8.3 Surface Modi.cations for Biocompatible Materials. 8.3.1 Molecular Brush Structure Developed on Biocompatible Materials. 8.3.2 Alginic Acid Molecular Brush Layers on Metal Implants. 8.3.3 Organotitanium Molecular Layers with Blood Compatibility. 8.4 Porous Hybrids for Tissue Engineering Scaffolds and Bioreactors. 8.4.1 PDMS-Silica Porous Hybrids for Bioreactors. 8.4.2 Gelatin-Silicate Porous Hybrids. 8.4.3 Chitosan-Silicate Porous Hybrids for Scaffold Applications. 8.5 Chitosan-based Hybrids for Drug Delivery Systems. 8.6 Summary. 9 Hybrid Materials for Optical Applications (Luis Antonio Dias Carlos, R.A. Sa Ferreira and V. de Zea Bermudez). 9.1 Introduction. 9.2 Synthesis Strategy for Optical Applications. 9.3 Hybrids for Coatings. 9.4 Hybrids for Light-emitting and Electro-optic Purposes. 9.4.1 Photoluminescence and Absorption. 9.4.2 Electroluminescence. 9.4.3 Quantifying Luminescence. Color Coordinates, Hue, Dominant Wavelength and Purity. Emission Quantum Yield and Radiance. 9.4.4 Recombination Mechanisms and Nature of the Emitting Centers. 9.4.5 Lanthanide-doped Hybrids. 9.4.6 Solid-state Dye-lasers. 9.5 Hybrids for Photochromic and Photovoltaic Devices. 9.6 Hybrids for Integrated and Nonlinear Optics. 9.6.1 Planar Waveguides and Direct Writing. 9.6.2 Nonlinear Optics. 9.7 Summary. 10 Electronic and Electrochemical Applications of Hybrid Materials (Jason E. Ritchie). 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Historical Background. 10.3 Fundamental Mechanisms of Conductivity in Hybrid Materials. 10.3.1 Electrical Conductivity. 10.3.2 Li-Conductivity. 10.3.3 H Conductivity. 10.4 Explanation of the Different Materials. 10.4.1 Sol-Gel Based Systems. 10.4.2 Nanocomposites. 10.4.3 Preparation of Electrochemically Active Films (and Chemically Modified Electrodes). 10.5 Special Analytical Techniques. 10.5.1 Electrochemical Techniques. 10.5.2 Pulsed Field Gradient NMR. 10.6 Applications. 10.6.1 Electrochemical Sensors. 10.6.2 Optoelectronic Applications. 10.6.3 H-conducting Electrolytes for Fuel Cell Applications. 10.6.4 Li-conducting Electrolytes for Battery Applications. 10.6.5 Other Ion Conducting Systems. 10.7 Summary. 11 Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Coatings (Mark D. Soucek). 11.1 General Introduction to Commodity Organic Coatings. 11.2 General Formation of Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Coatings. 11.2.1 Acid and Base Catalysis within an Organic Matrix. 11.2.2 Thermally Cured Inorganic/Organic Seed Oils Coatings. 11.2.3 Drying Oil Auto-oxidation Mechanism. 11.2.4 Metal Catalysts. 11.3 Alkyds and Other Polyester Coatings. 11.3.1 Inorganic/Organic Alkyd Coatings. 11.4 Polyurethane and Polyurea Coatings. 11.4.1 Polyurea Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Coatings. 11.4.2 Polyurethane/Polysiloxane Inorganic/Organic Coating System. 11.5 Radiation Curable Coatings. 11.5.1 UV-curable Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Coatings. 11.5.2 Models for Inorganic/Organic Hybrid Coatings. 11.5.3 Film Morphology. 11.6 Applications. 11.7 Summary. Index.

Product Details

  • publication date: 08/01/2007
  • ISBN13: 9783527312993
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 516
  • ID: 9783527312993
  • weight: 1094
  • ISBN10: 3527312994

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