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Without proper hydraulic fill and suitable specialised equipment, many major infrastructure projects such as ports, airports, roads, industrial or housing projects could not be realised. Yet comprehensive information about hydraulic fill is difficult to find. This thoroughly researched book, written by noted experts, takes the reader step-by-step through the complex development of a hydraulic fill project. Up-to-date and in-depth, this manual will enable the client and his consultant to understand and properly plan a reclamation project. It provides adequate guidelines for design and quality control and allows the contractor to work within known and generally accepted guidelines and reasonable specifications. The ultimate goal is to create better-designed, more adequately specified and less costly hydraulic fill projects.
The Hydraulic Fill Manual covers a range of topics such as: * The development cycle of a hydraulic fill project * How technical data are acquired and applied * The construction methods applicable to a wide variety of equipment and soil conditions, the capabilities of dredging equipment and the techniques of soil improvement * How to assess the potentials of a borrow pit * Essential environment assessment issues * The design of the hydraulic fill mass, including the boundary conditions for the design, effects of the design on its surroundings, the strength and stiffness of the fill mass, density, sensitivity to liquefaction, design considerations for special fill material such as silts, clays and carbonate sands, problematic subsoils and natural hazards * Quality control and monitoring of the fill mass and its behaviour after construction. This manual is of particular interest to clients, consultants, planning and consenting authorities, environmental advisors, contractors and civil, geotechnical, hydraulic and coastal engineers involved in dredging and land reclamation projects.
Preface Acknowledgements Notation Abbreviations 1 Introduction to the manual 1.1 Land reclamation by hydraulic filling 1.2 History and prospects 1.3 Context and objectives 1.4 Design philosophy 1.5 Structure, content and use 2 Project initiation 2.1 General 2.2 Basic elements of a land reclamation project 2.2.1 Conceptual design 2.2.2 Availability of fill sources 2.2.3 Data collection 2.2.4 Environmental requirements 2.2.5 Feasibility study 2.2.6 Initial project planning 2.2.7 Legal aspects 2.2.8 Types of contracts 2.3 Design 2.3.1 Design phases 2.4 Considerations for selecting construction method 2.5 Systems Engineering 3 Data collection 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Interpretation of data, contractual aspects 3.3 Desk study 3.4 Required data 3.4.1 Bathymetrical or topographical data 3.4.2 Geological and geotechnical information 22.214.171.124 Geological and geotechnical information in the borrow area 126.96.36.199 Geological and geotechnical information of the subsoil in the reclamation area 3.4.3 Hydraulic, meteorological, morphological and environmental data 188.8.131.52 Hydraulic data 184.108.40.206 Meteorological data 220.127.116.11 Morphological and environmental data 3.4.4 Seabed obstructions 3.5 Typical sand search site investigation 3.6 Reporting 3.6.1 Soil and rock classification and description 3.6.2 Soil classification based on CPT measurements 3.7 Use of data during different project stages 3.8 Geostatistical methods 3.8.1 General 3.8.2 Methods 3.8.3 Geostatistical software 4 Dredging equipment 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Dredging equipment 4.2.1 Suction dredging 4.2.2 Mechanical dredging 4.2.3 Other types of equipment 4.2.4 Combinations of equipment or dredge chains 4.3 Operational limitations 4.3.1 Waves and swell 4.3.2 Currents 4.3.3 Hindrance to shipping and other parties 4.3.4 Environmentally driven limitations 4.4 Dredging of fill material 4.4.1 Introduction 4.4.2 Volume and dimensions of borrow area 4.4.3 Minimum thickness of fill deposits 4.4.4 Dredgeability 4.5 Transport of fill 4.5.1 Introduction 4.5.2 Hydraulic transport through a pipeline 4.5.3 Transport by trailing suction hopper dredger or barge 4.6 Utilisation characteristics of dredging equipment 4.7 Basis of cost calculation for dredging 5 Selection borrow area 5.1 Considerations for the selection of a borrow area 5.2 Quality of the potential fill material 5.2.1 Change of the grading as a result of dredging 5.2.2 Alternative fill materials 5.3 Data collection in the borrow area 5.3.1 Data collection for quality assessment 5.3.2 Data collection for quantity assessment 5.3.3 Data collection for dredgeability assessment 5.4 Quantity of fill material available 5.4.1 Bulking 5.4.2 Losses 5.4.3 Slope stability 5.4.4 Geo-statistical methods 5.5 Boundary conditions 6 Planning and construction methods reclamation 6.1 Planning of the works 6.1.1 Introduction 6.1.2 Work preparation 18.104.22.168 Establishment of project team 22.214.171.124 Provision of housing and offices for personnel 126.96.36.199 Execution of engineering works 188.8.131.52 Create access to site and development of lay-down areas 184.108.40.206 Preparation and mobilization of equipment 6.1.3 Construction and monitoring 6.1.4 Demobilisation, clean-up and maintenance 6.1.5 Example of a project schedule 6.2 Work plan for reclamation works 6.3 Placement methods 6.4 Construction of containment bunds 6.4.1 General 6.4.2 Methods of bund construction 6.5 Placement of fill material 6.5.1 Underwater placement in bulk of fill material 6.5.2 Placement of fill material using a discharge pipeline 6.5.3 Rainbowing 6.5.4 Spraying 6.6 Fill mass properties related to method of placement 6.7 Management of poor quality materials 6.7.1 Use of cohesive or fine grained materials 6.7.2 Settling ponds 7 Ground improvement 7.1 Introduction 7.2 Benefits of ground improvement 7.3 Overview of ground improvement techniques 7.4 Pre-loading with or without vertical drains 7.4.1 Purpose and principle of pre-loading 7.4.2 Vertical drains 7.5 Compaction 7.5.1 Introduction 7.5.2 Vibratory surface compaction 7.5.3 Deep vibratory compaction 220.127.116.11 General 18.104.22.168 Vibratory probes without jets 22.214.171.124 Vibroflotation 7.5.4 Dynamic compaction techniques 7.5.5 Explosive compaction 7.6 Soil replacement 7.6.1 Introduction 7.6.2 Soil removal and replacement 7.6.3 Stone columns 126.96.36.199 Purpose and principle 188.8.131.52 Execution of stone columns by the vibro-replacement technique 7.6.4 Sand compaction piles (closed end casing) 7.6.5 Geotextile encased columns 7.6.6 Dynamic replacement 7.7 Admixtures and in-situ soil mixing 8 Design of reclamation area 8.1 Design philosophy 8.2 Basic mass properties 8.2.1 Strength of fill mass: Bearing capacity and slope stability 8.2.2 Stiffness of fill mass: Settlements, horizontal deformations and tolerances 8.2.3 Density of the fill mass and subsoil: Resistance against liquefaction 8.2.4 Permeability of fill mass: Drainage capacity 8.2.5 Platform level: Safety against flooding and erosion 8.3 Density 8.3.1 Definition of key parameters 8.3.2 Density ratios 8.3.3 The use of densities or density ratios in specifications 8.3.4 Effect of grain size distribution on the density of a soil sample 8.3.5 Density measurement 184.108.40.206 Measurement of reference densities (minimum and maximum density) 220.127.116.11 Direct measurement of in situ density 18.104.22.168 Indirect measurement of relative density by cone penetration testing 22.214.171.124 Indirect measurement of relative density by SPT testing 126.96.36.199 Measurement of in situ state parameter psi by cone penetration testing 8.3.6 Typical relative density values of hydraulic fill before compaction 8.4 Strength of the fill mass and subsoil (bearing capacity and slope stability) 8.4.1 Introduction 8.4.2 Shear strength 188.8.131.52 High quality fill material 184.108.40.206 Poor quality fill material 220.127.116.11 Assessment of shear strength 8.4.3 Relevant failure modes 18.104.22.168 Introduction 22.214.171.124 Safety approach 126.96.36.199 Analytical calculation models versus Finite Element Method (FEM) 188.8.131.52 Bearing capacity 184.108.40.206 Punch through 220.127.116.11 Squeezing 18.104.22.168 Slope stability of fill and subsoil 22.214.171.124.1 Design methods 126.96.36.199.2 Limit Equilibrium Methods 188.8.131.52.3 Finite Element Method 184.108.40.206 Construction of a slope on soft soil 220.127.116.11 Effect of groundwater flow on slope stability 18.104.22.168 Earthquakes and slope stability 22.214.171.124 Stabilising measures for slope stability 126.96.36.199.1 Optimizing the slope geometry by using counterweight berms 188.8.131.52.2 Staged construction 184.108.40.206.3 Soil replacement (sand key) 220.127.116.11.4 Stone columns, sand compaction piles 18.104.22.168.5 Geosynthetics 8.5 Stiffness and deformation 8.5.1 Introduction 8.5.2 Stiffness 22.214.171.124 General considerations 126.96.36.199 Stiffness of subsoil 188.8.131.52 Stiffness of fill material 8.5.3 Deformations 184.108.40.206 General considerations 220.127.116.11 Settlement calculation methods 18.104.22.168 Additional considerations 22.214.171.124 Vertical deformation of a reclamation surface 126.96.36.199 Vertical deformations of structures 188.8.131.52 Horizontal deformations 8.5.4 Techniques for limiting settlement 8.6 Liquefaction and earthquakes 8.6.1 Overview 8.6.2 History of understanding 8.6.3 Flow slides versus Cyclic softening 8.6.4 Assessing liquefaction susceptibility 184.108.40.206 Codes & Standards 220.127.116.11 Loading: Estimating CSR by site response analysis 18.104.22.168 Resistance, Step 1: Susceptibility to large deformations 22.214.171.124 Resistance, Step 2: Evaluation of CRR 8.6.5 Movements caused by liquefaction 126.96.36.199 Slope deformations 188.8.131.52 Lateral spreads 184.108.40.206 Settlements 8.6.6 Fill characterization for liquefaction assessment 220.127.116.11 Necessity for in situ tests 18.104.22.168 Required number of CPT soundings 22.214.171.124 CPT calibration 126.96.36.199 Supporting laboratory data 8.6.7 Note on soil type (Calcareous and other non-standard sands) 9 Special fill materials and problematic subsoils 9.1 Cohesive or fine-grained fill materials 9.1.1 Introduction 9.1.2 Segregation of fines 9.1.3 Soft clay or soft silt 188.8.131.52 Suitability of soft (organic) clay or silt as fill material 184.108.40.206 Workability of clay 220.127.116.11 Effects of winning method 18.104.22.168 Measures to improve the fill properties after disposal 22.214.171.124 Construction aspects of soft soils in case of application above the waterline 126.96.36.199 Construction aspects of soft soils in case of application below the waterline 9.1.4 Stiff clay or silt 9.2 Carbonate sand fill material 9.2.1 Introduction 9.2.2 Origin and composition of carbonate sands 9.2.3 Typical properties of carbonate sands 9.2.4 Mechanical behaviour of carbonate sands 9.2.5 The use of carbonate sand as fill 188.8.131.52 Typical behaviour during dredging and hydraulic transport 184.108.40.206 Cone Penetration and Standard Penetration testing in carbonate sands 220.127.116.11 Laboratory testing 18.104.22.168 Field compaction 9.3 Hydraulic rock fill 9.3.1 Introduction 9.3.2 Lump size 9.3.3 Compaction and measurement of compaction result 9.3.4 Grading 9.3.5 Fines 9.3.6 Wear and tear 9.3.7 Pumping distance during rock dredging 9.3.8 Specifications rock fill 9.4 Problematic subsoils 9.4.1 Sensitive clay 9.4.2 Peat 9.4.3 Glacial soils 9.4.4 Sabkha 9.4.5 Karst 9.4.6 Laterite 10 Other design items 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Drainage 10.2.1 Infiltration 10.2.2 Surface runoff 10.2.3 Artificial drainage systems 10.3 Wind erosion 10.4 Slope, bank and bed protection 10.5 Interaction between reclamation and civil works 10.5.1 General 10.5.2 Foundations 10.5.3 Construction sequence 10.5.4 Impact on existing structures 10.6 Earthquakes 10.7 Tsunamis 11 Monitoring and quality control 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Quality Control Plan 11.3 Monitoring and testing 11.3.1 Geometry 11.3.2 Fill material properties 22.214.171.124 Grain size distribution 126.96.36.199 Minimum and maximum dry densities 188.8.131.52 Mineralogy 11.3.3 Fill mass properties 184.108.40.206 Shear strength 220.127.116.11 Stiffness 18.104.22.168 Density, relative compaction and relative density 11.3.4 Environmental monitoring 12 Technical specifications 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Roles and responsibilities 12.3 Checklist project requirements 12.4 Commented examples of technical specifications 12.4.1 Introduction 12.4.2 Description of the works 12.4.3 Standards 12.4.4 Data collection (see Chapter 3) 12.4.5 Dredging equipment and working method (see Chapter 4) 12.4.6 Selection borrow area-quality fill material (see Chapter 5) 12.4.7 Construction methods reclamation area (see Chapter 6) 12.4.8 Environmental impact 12.4.9 Design of a land reclamation (see Chapter 8) 12.4.10 Ground improvement (see Chapter 7) 12.4.11 Special fill materials (see Chapter 9) 12.4.12 Other design aspects (see Chapter 10) 12.4.13 Monitoring and quality control (see Chapter 11) 22.214.171.124 Geometry 126.96.36.199 Testing fill material properties (see Section 11.3.2) 188.8.131.52 Testing fill mass properties (see Section 11.3.3) 184.108.40.206 Settlement monitoring (see Appendix B.5.3) 220.127.116.11 Performance testing 18.104.22.168 Reporting 22.214.171.124 Monitoring and Quality Control Program (see Section 11.2) Appendices A Equipment B Field and Laboratory Tests C Correlations and Correction Methods D Geotechnical Principles References
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