Hydrodynamics and Water Quality: Modeling Rivers, Lakes, and Estuaries
By: Zhen-Gang Ji (author)Hardback
More than 4 weeks availability
This reference gets you up to speed on mathematical modeling for environmental and water resources management. With a practical, application-oriented approach, it discusses hydrodynamics, sediment processes, toxic fate and transport, and water quality and eutrophication in rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters. A companion CD-ROM includes a modeling package and electronic files of numerical models, case studies, and model results. This is a core reference for water quality professionals and an excellent text for graduate students.
Zhen-Gang (Jeff) Ji, PHD, DES, PE, has more than twenty years of professional experience in surface water modeling and model development. His expertise includes hydrodynamics, wave simulation, eutrophication, toxic process, and sediment transport. He has developed and applied state-of-the-art hydrodynamic models and water quality models to the simulation of rivers, lakes, estuaries, and coastal waters. Currently, Dr. Ji is an oceanographer and numerical modeler with the Minerals Management Service.
Forward. Preface. Acknowledgements. 1. Introduction. 1.1 Overview. 1.2 Understanding Surface Waters. 1.3 Modeling of Surface Waters. 1.4 About This Book. 2. Hydrodynamics. 2.1 Hydrodynamic Processes. 2.1.1 Water Density. 2.1.2 Conservation Laws. 126.96.36.199 Conservation of mass. 188.8.131.52 Conservation of momentum. 2.1.3 Advection and Dispersion. 2.1.4 Mass Balance Equation. 2.1.5 Atmospheric Forcings. 2.1.6 Coriolis Force and Geostrophic Flow. 2.2 Governing Equations. 2.2.1 Basic Approximations. 184.108.40.206 Boussinesq approximation. 220.127.116.11 Hydrostatic approximation. 18.104.22.168 Quasi-3D approximation. 2.2.2 Equations in Cartesian Coordinates. 22.214.171.124 1D equations. 126.96.36.199 2D vertically averaged equations. 188.8.131.52 2D laterally averaged equations. 184.108.40.206 3D equations in sigma coordinate. 2.2.3 Vertical Mixing and Turbulence Models. 2.2.4 Equations in Curvilinear Coordinates. 220.127.116.11 Curvilinear coordinates and model grid. 18.104.22.168 3D equations in sigma and curvilinear coordinates. 2.2.5 Initial Conditions and Boundary Conditions. 22.214.171.124 Initial conditions. 126.96.36.199 Solid boundary conditions. 2.3 Temperature. 2.3.1 Heatflux Components. 188.8.131.52 Solar radiation. 184.108.40.206 Longwave radiation. 220.127.116.11 Evaporation and latent heat. 18.104.22.168 Sensible heat. 2.3.2 Temperature Formulations. 22.214.171.124 Basic equations. 126.96.36.199 Surface boundary condition. 188.8.131.52 Bed heat exchange. 2.4 Hydrodynamic Modeling. 2.4.1 Hydrodynamic Parameters and Data Requirements. 184.108.40.206 Hydrodynamic parameters. 220.127.116.11 Data requirements. 2.4.2 Case Study I: Lake Okeechobee. 18.104.22.168 Background. 22.214.171.124 Data sources. 126.96.36.199 Model setup. 188.8.131.52 Model calibration. 184.108.40.206 Hydrodynamic processes in the lake. 220.127.116.11 Discussions and conclusions. 2.4.3 Case Study II: St. Lucie Estuary and Indian River Lagoon. 18.104.22.168 Background. 22.214.171.124 Model setup. 126.96.36.199 Tidal elevation and current in SLE/IRL. 188.8.131.52 Temperature and salinity. 184.108.40.206 Discussions on hydrodynamic processes. 220.127.116.11 Conclusions. 3. Sediment Transport. 3.1 Overview. 3.1.1 Properties of Sediment. 3.1.2 Problems Associated with Sediment. 3.2 Sediment Processes. 3.2.1 Particle Settling. 3.2.2 Horizontal Transport of Sediment. 3.2.3 Resuspension and Deposition. 3.2.4 Equations for Sediment Transport. 3.2.5 Turbidity and Secchi Depth. 3.3 Cohesive Sediment. 3.3.1 Vertical Profiles of Cohesive Sediment Concentrations. 3.3.2 Flocculation. 3.3.3 Settling of Cohesive Sediment. 3.3.4 Deposition of Cohesive Sediment. 3.3.5 Resuspension of Cohesive Sediment. 3.4 Noncohesive Sediment. 3.4.1 Shields Diagram. 3.4.2 Settling and Equilibrium Concentration. 3.4.3 Bed Load Transport. 3.5 Sediment Bed. 3.5.1 Characteristics of Sediment Bed. 3.5.2 A Model for Sediment Bed. 3.6 Wind Waves. 3.6.1 Wave Processes. 3.6.2 Wind Wave Characteristics. 3.6.3 Wind Wave Models. 3.6.4 Combined Flows of Wind Waves and Currents. 3.6.5 Case Study: Wind Wave Modeling in Lake Okeechobee. 18.104.22.168 Background. 22.214.171.124 Measured data and model setup. 126.96.36.199 Model calibration and verification. 188.8.131.52 Discussions. 3.7 Sediment Transport Modeling. 3.7.1 Sediment Parameters and Data Requirements. 3.7.2 Case Study I: Lake Okeechobee. 184.108.40.206 Background. 220.127.116.11 Model configuration. 18.104.22.168 Model calibration and verification. 22.214.171.124 Discussions and conclusions. 3.7.3 Case Study II: Blackstone River. 126.96.36.199 Background. 188.8.131.52 Data sources and model setup. 184.108.40.206 Hydrodynamic and sediment simulation. 4. Pathogens and Toxics. 4.1 Overview. 4.2 Pathogens. 4.2.1 Bacteria, Viruses, and Protozoa. 4.2.2 Pathogen Indicators. 4.2.3 Processes Affecting Pathogens. 4.3 Toxic Substances. 4.3.1 Toxic Organic Chemicals. 4.3.2 Metals. 4.3.3 Sorption and Desorption. 4.4 Fate and Transport Processes. 4.4.1 Mathematical Formulations. 4.4.2 Processes Affecting Fate and Decay. 220.127.116.11 Mineralization and decomposition. 18.104.22.168 Hydrolysis. 22.214.171.124 Photolysis. 126.96.36.199 Biodegradation. 188.8.131.52 Volatilization. 184.108.40.206 pH. 4.5 Contaminant Modeling. 4.5.1 Case Study I: St. Lucie Estuary and Indian River Lagoon. 220.127.116.11 Analysis of measured copper data. 18.104.22.168 Sediment and copper modeling results. 22.214.171.124 Summary and discussions. 4.5.2 Case Study II: Rockford Lake. 126.96.36.199 Background. 188.8.131.52 Data sources and model setup. 184.108.40.206 Model results. 5. Water Quality and Eutrophication. 5.1 Overview. 5.1.1 Eutrophication. 5.1.2 Algae. 5.1.3 Nutrients. 220.127.116.11 Nitrogen cycle. 18.104.22.168 Phosphorus cycle. 22.214.171.124 Limiting nutrients. 5.1.4 Dissolved Oxygen. 5.1.5 Governing Equations for Water Quality Processes. 126.96.36.199 Hydrodynamic effects. 188.8.131.52 Temperature effects. 184.108.40.206 Michaelis-Menton formulation. 220.127.116.11 State variables in water quality models. 5.2 Algae. 5.2.1 Algal Biomass and Chlorophyll. 5.2.2 Equations for Algal Processes. 5.2.3 Algal Growth. 18.104.22.168 Nutrients for algal growth. 22.214.171.124 Sunlight for algal growth and photosynthesis. 5.2.4 Algal Reduction. 126.96.36.199 Basal metabolism. 188.8.131.52 Algal predation. 184.108.40.206 Algal settling. 5.2.5 Silica and Diatom. 5.2.6 Periphyton. 5.3 Organic Carbon. 5.3.1 Decomposition of Organic Carbon. 5.3.2 Equations for Organic Carbon. 5.3.3 Heterotrophic Respiration and Dissolution. 5.4 Phosphorus. 5.4.1 Equations for Phosphorus State Variables. 220.127.116.11 Particulate organic phosphorus. 18.104.22.168 Dissolved organic phosphorus. 22.214.171.124 Total phosphate. 5.4.2 Phosphorus Processes. 126.96.36.199 Sorption and desorption of phosphate. 188.8.131.52 Effects of algae on phosphorus. 184.108.40.206 Mineralization and hydrolysis. 5.5 Nitrogen. 5.5.1 Forms of Nitrogen. 5.5.2 Equations for Nitrogen State Variables. 220.127.116.11 Particulate organic nitrogen. 18.104.22.168 Dissolved organic nitrogen. 22.214.171.124 Ammonium nitrogen. 126.96.36.199 Nitrate nitrogen. 5.5.3 Nitrogen Processes. 188.8.131.52 Effects of algae. 184.108.40.206 Mineralization and hydrolysis. 220.127.116.11 Nitrification. 18.104.22.168 Denitrification. 22.214.171.124 Nitrogen fixation. 5.6 Dissolved Oxygen. 5.6.1 Biochemical Oxygen Demand. 5.6.2 Processes and Equations of Dissolved Oxygen. 5.6.3 Effects of Photosynthesis and Respiration. 5.6.4 Reaeration. 5.6.5 Chemical Oxygen Demand. 5.7 Sediment Fluxes. 5.7.1 Sediment Diagenesis Model. 126.96.36.199 Three fluxes of the sediment diagenesis model. 188.8.131.52 Two-layer structure of benthic sediment. 184.108.40.206 Three G classes of sediment organic matter. 220.127.116.11 State variables of the sediment diagenesis model. 5.7.2 Depositional Fluxes. 5.7.3 Diagenesis Fluxes. 5.7.4 Sediment Fluxes. 18.104.22.168 Basic equations. 22.214.171.124 Parameters for sediment fluxes. 126.96.36.199 Ammonium nitrogen flux. 188.8.131.52 Nitrate nitrogen flux. 184.108.40.206 Phosphate phosphorus flux. 220.127.116.11 Chemical oxygen demand and sediment oxygen demand. 5.7.5 Silica. 5.7.6 Coupling with Sediment Resuspension. 5.8 Submerged Aquatic Vegetation. 5.8.1 Introduction. 5.8.2 Equations for a SAV Model. 18.104.22.168 Shoots production and respiration. 22.214.171.124 Carbon transport and roots respiration. 126.96.36.199 Epiphytes production and respiration. 5.8.3 Coupling with the Water Quality Model. 188.8.131.52 Organic carbon coupling. 184.108.40.206 Dissolved oxygen coupling. 220.127.116.11 Phosphorus coupling. 18.104.22.168 Nitrogen coupling. 22.214.171.124 Total suspended solid coupling. 5.9 Water Quality Modeling. 5.9.1 Model Parameters and Data Requirements. 126.96.36.199 Water quality parameters. 188.8.131.52 Data requirements. 5.9.2 Case Study I: Lake Okeechobee. 184.108.40.206 Background. 220.127.116.11 Model setup and data sources. 18.104.22.168 Water quality modeling results. 22.214.171.124 SAV modeling results. 126.96.36.199 Discussions and Summary. 5.9.3 Case Study II: St. Lucie Estuary and Indian River Lagoon. 188.8.131.52 Model setup. 184.108.40.206 Water quality model calibration and verification. 220.127.116.11 Hydrodynamic and water quality processes in the SLE. 18.104.22.168 Summary and conclusions. 6. External Sources and TMDL. 6.1 Point Sources and Nonpoint Sources. 6.2 Atmospheric Deposition. 6.3 Wetlands and Ground Water. 6.3.1 Wetlands. 6.3.2 Ground Water. 6.4 Watershed Processes and TMDL Development. 6.4.1 Watershed Processes. 6.4.2 Total Maximum Daily Load (TMDL). 7. Mathematical Modeling and Statistical Analyses. 7.1 Mathematical Models. 7.1.1 Numerical Models. 7.1.2 Model Selection. 7.1.3 Spatial Resolution and Temporal Resolution. 7.2 Statistical Analyses. 7.2.1 Statistics for Model Performance Evaluation. 7.2.2 Correlation and Regression. 7.2.3 Spectral Analysis. 7.2.4 Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF). 7.2.5 EOF Case Study. 7.3 Model Calibration and Verification. 7.3.1 Model Calibration. 7.3.2 Model Verification and Validation. 7.3.3 Sensitivity Analysis. 8. Rivers. 8.1 Characteristics of Rivers. 8.2 Hydrodynamic Processes in Rivers. 8.2.1 River Flow and the Manning Equation. 8.2.2 Advection and Dispersion in Rivers. 8.2.3 Flow over Dams. 8.3 Sediment and Water Quality Processes in Rivers. 8.3.1 Sediment and Contaminants in Rivers. 8.3.2 Impacts of River Flow on Water Quality. 8.3.3 Eutrophication and Periphyton in Rivers. 8.3.4 Dissolved Oxygen in Rivers. 8.4 River Modeling. 8.4.1 Case Study I: Blackstone River. 22.214.171.124 Modeling metals in the Blackstone River. 126.96.36.199 Impacts of sediment and metals sources. 188.8.131.52 Discussion and conclusions. 8.4.2 Case Study II: Susquehanna River. 184.108.40.206 Background. 220.127.116.11 Model application. 18.104.22.168 Discussions. 9. Lakes and Reservoirs. 9 1 Characteristics of Lakes and Reservoirs. 9.1.1 Key Factors Controlling a Lake. 9.1.2 Vertical Stratification. 9.1.3 Biological Zones in Lakes. 9.1.4 Characteristics of Reservoirs. 9.1.5 Lake Pollution and Eutrophication. 9.2 Hydrodynamic Processes. 9.2.1 Inflow, Outflow, and Water Budget. 9.2.2 Wind Forcing and Vertical Circulations. 9.2.3 Seasonal Variations of Stratification. 9.2.4 Gyres. 9.2.5 Seiches. 9.3 Sediment and Water Quality Processes in Lakes. 9.3.1 Sediment Deposition in Reservoirs and Lakes. 9.3.2 Algae and Nutrient Stratifications. 9.3.3 Dissolved Oxygen Stratifications. 9.3.4 Internal Cycling and Limiting Functions in Shallow Lakes. 9.4 Lake Modeling. 9.4.1 Case Study I: Lake Tenkiller. 22.214.171.124 Introduction. 126.96.36.199 Data sources and model setup. 188.8.131.52 Hydrodynamic simulation. 184.108.40.206 Water quality simulation. 220.127.116.11 Discussion and conclusions. 9.4.2 Case Study II: Lake Okeechobee. 18.104.22.168 Sediment and nutrient fluxes into the Fisheating Bay. 22.214.171.124 Impact of Hurricane Irene. 126.96.36.199 Impacts of SAV on nutrient concentrations. 10. Estuaries and Coastal Waters. 10.1 Introduction. 10.2 Tidal Processes. 10.2.1 Tides. 10.2.2 Tidal Currents. 10.2.3 Harmonic Analysis. 10.3 Hydrodynamic Processes in Estuaries. 10.3.1 Salinity. 10.3.2 Estuarine Circulation. 10.3.3 Stratifications of Estuaries. 10.3.3.1 Highly stratified estuaries. 10.3.3.2 Moderately stratified estuaries. 10.3.3.3 Vertically mixed estuaries. 10.3.3.4 An example of estuarine stratifications. 10.3.4 Flushing Time. 10.4 Sediment and Water Quality Processes in Estuaries. 10.4.1 Sediment Transport under Tidal Forcing. 10.4.2 Flocculation of Cohesive Sediment and Sediment Trapping. 10.4.3 Eutrophication in Estuaries. 10.5 Estuarine and Coastal Modeling. 10.5.1 Open Boundary Conditions. 10.5.2 Case Study I: Morro Bay. 10.5.2.1 Introduction. 10.5.2.2 Field data measurements. 10.5.2.3 Model setup. 10.5.2.4 Wetting and drying approaches. 10.5.2.5 Wet cell mapping. 10.5.2.6 Hydrodynamic processes in Morro Bay. 10.5.2.7 Summary and conclusions. 10.5.3 Case Study II: St. Lucie Estuary and Indian River Lagoon. 10.5.3.1 Ten-year simulations. 10.5.3.2 Influence of sea level rise on water quality. Appendix A: Environmental Fluid Dynamics Code. A1 Overview. A2 Hydrodynamics. A3 Sediment Transport. A4 Toxic Chemical Transport and Fate. A5 Water Quality and Eutrophication. A6 Numerical Schemes. A7 Documentation and Application Aids. Appendix B: Conversion Factors. Appendix C: Contents of Electronic Files. C1 Channel Model. C2 St. Lucie Estuary and Indian River Lagoon Model. C3 Lake Okeechobee Environmental Model. C4 Documentation and Utility Programs. References. Index.
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