Covering the various aspects of this fast-evolving field, this comprehensive book includes the fundamentals and a comparison of current applications, while focusing on the latest, novel achievements and future directions. The introductory chapters explore the thermodynamic and electrochemical processes to better understand how electrolysis cells work, and how these can be combined to build large electrolysis modules. The book then goes on to discuss the electrolysis process and the characteristics, advantages, drawbacks, and challenges of the main existing electrolysis technologies. Current manufacturers and the main features of commercially available electrolyzers are extensively reviewed. The final chapters then present the possible configurations for integrating water electrolysis units with renewable energy sources in both autonomous and grid-connected systems, and comment on some relevant demonstration projects. Written by an internationally renowned team from academia and industry, the result is an invaluable review of the field and a discussion of known limitations and future perspectives.
Agata Godula -Jopek holds three Master of Science diplomas in chemical engineering, marketing and management in scientific activities, and foreign trade all obtained in her native Poland at the Technical University in Cracow. While working at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Cracow, Department of Electrochemical Oxidation of Gaseous Fuels, she received her PhD in the electrochemistry of a binary molten carbonate salts - an electrolyte for Molten Carbonate Fuel Cells. She completed postdoctoral research with Germany s MTU CFC Solutions. In 2012 Agata received her habilitation at the Faculty of Process and Environmental Engineering at the Lodz University of Technology, Poland, in technical sciences with a focus on chemical engineering. Agata is currently an expert at Airbus Group Innovations at the Department of Energy and Propulsion. She is also employed as an Associate Professor at the Institute of Chemical Engineering of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Gliwice, Poland. She has authored several scientific publications and patents. Recently Agata coauthored a book on "Hydrogen Storage Technologies. New Materials, Transport and Infrastructure."
Foreword XIII Preface XV List of Contributors XIX 1 Introduction 1 Agata Godula-Jopek 1.1 Overview on Different Hydrogen Production Means from a Technical Point of View 10 1.2 Summary Including Hydrogen Production Cost Overview 21 References 28 2 Fundamentals ofWater Electrolysis 33 Pierre Millet 2.1 Thermodynamics of theWater Splitting Reaction 33 2.2 Efficiency of ElectrochemicalWater Splitting 46 2.3 Kinetics of theWater Splitting Reaction 52 2.4 Conclusions 59 Nomenclature 59 Greek symbols 60 Subscripts or superscripts 60 Acronyms 60 References 61 3 PEMWater Electrolysis 63 Pierre Millet 3.1 Introduction, Historical Background 63 3.2 Concept of Solid Polymer Electrolyte Cell 65 3.3 Description of Unit PEM Cells 67 3.4 Electrochemical Performances of Unit PEM Cells 76 3.5 Cell Stacking 94 3.6 Balance of Plant 100 3.7 Main Suppliers, Commercial Developments and Applications 102 3.8 Limitations, Challenges and Perspectives 105 3.9 Conclusions 111 Nomenclature 113 Greek symbols 113 Subscripts or superscripts 114 Acronyms 114 References 114 4 AlkalineWater Electrolysis 117 Nicolas Guillet and Pierre Millet 4.1 Introduction and Historical Background 117 4.2 Description of Unit Electrolysis Cells 121 4.3 Electrochemical Performances of AlkalineWater Electrolysers 137 4.4 Main Suppliers, Commercial Developments and Applications 147 4.5 Conclusions 161 Nomenclature 162 Greek Symbols 162 Subscripts or Superscripts 162 Acronyms 163 References 163 5 Unitized Regenerative Systems 167 Pierre Millet 5.1 Introduction 167 5.2 Underlying Concepts 168 5.3 Low-Temperature PEM URFCs 174 5.4 High-Temperature URFCs 182 5.5 General Conclusion and Perspectives 187 Nomenclature 187 Greek Symbols 188 Subscripts or Superscripts 188 Acronyms 188 References 189 6 High-Temperature Steam Electrolysis 191 Jerome Laurencin and Julie Mougin 6.1 Introduction 191 6.2 Overview of the Technology 191 6.3 Fundamentals of Solid-State Electrochemistry in SOEC 197 6.4 Performances and Durability 244 6.5 Limitations and Challenges 253 6.6 Specific OperationModes 259 List of Terms 262 Roman symbols 262 Greek Symbols 263 Abbreviations 264 References 264 7 Hydrogen Storage Options Including Constraints and Challenges 273 Agata Godula-Jopek 7.1 Introduction 273 7.2 Liquid Hydrogen 276 7.3 Compressed Hydrogen 281 7.4 Cryo-Compressed Hydrogen 284 7.5 Solid-State Hydrogen Storage Including Materials and System-Related Problems 286 7.6 Summary 304 References 306 8 Hydrogen: A Storage Means for Renewable Energies 311 Cyril Bourasseau and Benjamin Guinot 8.1 Introduction 311 8.2 Hydrogen: A Storage Means for Renewable Energies (RE) 312 8.3 Electrolysis Powered by Intermittent Energy: Technical Challenges, Impact on Performances and Reliability 327 8.4 Integration Schemes and Examples 351 8.5 Techno-Economic Assessment 362 8.6 The Role of Simulation for Economic Assessment 365 8.7 Conclusion 378 References 379 9 Outlook and Summary 383 Agata Godula-Jopek and Pierre Millet 9.1 Comparison ofWater Electrolysis Technologies 387 9.2 Technology Development Status and Main Manufacturers 387 9.3 Material and System Roadmap Specifications 390 References 393 Index 395
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