Hydrogen Science and Engineering: Materials, Processes, Systems and Technology

Hydrogen Science and Engineering: Materials, Processes, Systems and Technology

By: Bernd Emonts (editor), Detlef Stolten (editor)Hardback

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Description

Authored by 50 top academic, government and industry researchers, this handbook explores mature, evolving technologies for a clean, economically viable alternative to non-renewable energy. In so doing, it also discusses such broader topics as the environmental impact, education, safety and regulatory developments. The text is all-encompassing, covering a wide range that includes hydrogen as an energy carrier, hydrogen for storage of renewable energy, and incorporating hydrogen technologies into existing technologies.

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About Author

Detlef Stolten is the Director of the Institute of Energy Research at the Forschungszentrum Julich. Prof. Stolten received his doctorate from the University of Technology at Clausthal, Germany. He served many years as a Research Scientist in the laboratories of Robert Bosch and Daimler Benz/Dornier. In 1998 he accepted the position of Director of the Institute of Materials and Process Technology at the Research Center Julich, Germany. Two years later he became Professor for Fuel Cell Technology at the University of Technology (RWTH) at Aachen. Prof. Stolten's research focuses on fuel cells, implementing results from research in innovative products, procedures and processes in collaboration with industry, contributing towards bridging the gap between science and technology. His research activities are focused on energy process engineering of SOFC and PEFC systems, i.e. electrochemistry, stack tech-nology, process and systems engineering as well as systems analysis. Prof. Stolten represents Germany in the Executive Committee of the IEA Annex Advanced Fuel Cells and is on the advisory board of the journal Fuel Cells. Dr. Bernd Emonts is the Deputy Director of the Institute of Energy Research at the Julich Research Center, Germany. He received his diploma in structural engineering from the Aachen University of Applied Sciences, Germany, in 1981. He went on to specialize in the fundamentals of mechanical engineering at RWTH Aachen University, Germany and was awarded his PhD in 1989. Working as a scientist, Dr. Emonts has been involved in extensive research and development projects in the areas of catalytic combustion and energy systems with low-temperature fuel cells. Between 1991 and 1994, he concurrently worked as an R & D advisor for a German industrial enterprise in the drying and coating technologies sector. In addition to his scientific activities at Julich Research Center, Germany, Dr. Emonts lectured at Aachen University of Applied Sciences from 1999 to 2008. Dr. Emonts has published extensively in the field of Hydrogen Sciences and Fuel Cells.

Contents

List of Contributors xxxi Volume 1 Part 1 Sol Gel Chemistry and Methods 1 1 Hydrogen in Refineries 3 James G. Speight 1.1 Introduction 3 1.2 Hydroprocesses 4 1.3 Refining Heavy Feedstocks 11 1.4 Hydrogen Production 12 1.5 Hydrogen Management 14 2 Hydrogen in the Chemical Industry 19 Florian Ausfelder and Alexis Bazzanella 2.1 Introduction 19 2.2 Sources of Hydrogen in the Chemical Industry 22 2.3 Utilization of Hydrogen in the Chemical Industry 32 3 Chlorine Alkaline Electrolysis Technology and Use and Economy 41 Alessandro Delfrate 3.1 Introduction 41 3.2 Production Technologies 42 3.3 Use of Chlorine and Sodium Hydroxide 52 Part 2 Hydrogen as an Energy Carrier 57 Part 2.1 Introduction and National Strategies 57 4 Hydrogen Research, Development, Demonstration, and Market Deployment Activities 59 Jochen Linssen and Jurgen-Friedrich Hake 4.1 Introduction 59 4.2 Germany 60 4.3 Norway 65 4.4 European Union 68 4.5 Canada 70 4.6 United States of America 76 4.7 Japan 78 4.8 International Networks 80 Part 2.2 Thermochemical Hydrogen Production 85 5 Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Solar Thermal Water Decomposition 87 Christian Sattler, Nathalie Monnerie, Martin Roeb, and Matthias Lange 5.1 Introduction 87 5.2 Historical Development 88 5.3 Present State of Work 89 5.4 Conclusion and Outlook 102 6 Supercritical Water Gasification for Biomass-Based Hydrogen Production 109 Andrea Kruse 6.1 Introduction 109 6.2 Model Compounds 113 6.3 Biomass 116 6.4 Catalysts 119 6.5 Challenges 119 6.6 Scale-Up and Technical Application 122 6.7 New Developments 122 6.8 Conclusion 123 7 Thermochemical Hydrogen Production Plasma-Based Production of Hydrogen from Hydrocarbons 131 Abdullah Aitani, Shakeel Ahmed, and Fahad Al-Muhaish 7.1 Introduction 131 7.2 Non-thermal Plasma 132 7.3 Thermal Plasma 144 7.4 Concluding Remarks 146 8 Solar Thermal Reforming 151 Christos Agrafiotis, Henrik von Storch, Martin Roeb, and Christian Sattler 8.1 Introduction 151 8.2 Hydrogen Production via Methane Reforming 152 8.3 Solar-Aided Methane Reforming 154 8.4 Current Development Status and Future Prospects 167 9 Fuel Processing for Utilization in Fuel Cells 173 Ralf Peters 9.1 Introduction 173 9.2 Scope of the Work and Methodical Approach 174 9.3 Chemical Engineering Thermodynamics 175 9.4 Unit Operations 180 9.5 Subsystems of Fuel Processing 192 9.6 Conclusion 208 10 Small-Scale Reforming for On-Site Hydrogen Supply 217 Ingrid Schjolberg, Christian Hulteberg, and Dick Lieftink 10.1 Introduction 217 10.2 Definition 218 10.3 Reforming Technologies 219 10.4 Feedstock Options 223 10.5 Suppliers and Products 225 10.6 Emerging Technologies 228 10.7 Process Control 232 10.8 Safety 234 10.9 Conclusion 235 11 Industrial Hydrogen Production from Hydrocarbon Fuels and Biomass 237 Andreas Jess and Peter Wasserscheid 11.1 Options to Produce Hydrogen from Fuels An Overview 237 11.2 Hydrogen Production from Solid Fuels (Coal, Biomass) 242 11.3 Syngas by Partial Oxidation of Heavy Oils 244 11.4 Syngas by Steam Reforming of Natural Gas 246 11.5 Conclusions 249 Part 2.3 H2 from Electricity 253 12 Electrolysis Systems for Grid Relieving 255 Filip Smeets and Jan Vaes 12.1 Introduction 255 12.2 Energy Policies around the Globe Drive Demand for Energy Storage 256 12.3 The Options for Integration of Intermittent Renewable Energy Sources 261 12.4 The Evolution of the Demand for Energy Storage 268 12.5 The Role of Electrolyzers in the Energy Transition 270 12.6 The Overall Business Case and Outlook 274 12.7 Conclusions 278 13 Status and Prospects of Alkaline Electrolysis 283 Dongke Zhang and Kai Zeng 13.1 Introduction 283 13.2 Thermodynamic Consideration 285 13.3 Electrode Kinetics 287 13.4 Electrical and Transport Resistances 292 13.5 Research Trends 297 13.6 Summary 303 14 Dynamic Operation of Electrolyzers Systems Design and Operating Strategies 309 Geert Tjarks, Jurgen Mergel, and Detlef Stolten 14.1 Introduction 309 14.2 Process Steps and System Components 310 14.3 Dynamic Operation of Electrolyzers 317 14.4 System Design Criterion 322 14.5 Conclusion 327 15 Stack Technology for PEM Electrolysis 331 Jurgen Mergel, David L. Fritz, and Marcelo Carmo 15.1 Introduction to Electrolysis 331 15.2 General Principles of PEM Electrolysis 335 15.3 Summary 355 16 Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology for Hydrogen/Syngas and Power Production 359 Nguyen Q. Minh 16.1 Introduction 359 16.2 Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Overview 359 16.3 Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology 366 16.4 Solid Oxide Electrolysis Cell Technology 372 16.5 Reversible Solid Oxide Fuel Cell Technology 379 16.6 Summary 383 Part 2.4 H2 from Biomass 391 17 Assessment of Selected Concepts for Hydrogen Production Based on Biomass 393 Franziska Muller-Langer, Konstantin Zech, Stefan Ronsch, Katja Oehmichen, Julia Michaelis, Simon Funke, and Elias Grasemann 17.1 Introduction 393 17.2 Characteristics of Selected Hydrogen Concepts 394 17.3 Concept Assessment of Technical Aspects 401 17.4 Concept Assessment of Environmental Aspects 402 17.5 Concept Assessment of Economic Aspects 406 17.6 Summary 411 18 Hydrogen from Biomass Production Process via Fermentation 417 Balachandar G., Shantonu Roy, and Debabrata Das 18.1 Introduction 417 18.2 Hydrogen Production from Biomass as Feedstock 422 18.3 Reactor Configurations and Scale-Up Challenges 427 18.4 Economics and Barriers 430 18.5 Future Prospects 431 18.6 Conclusion 431 Part 2.5 Hydrogen from Solar Radiation and Algae 439 19 Photoelectrochemical Water Decomposition 441 Sebastian Fiechter 19.1 Introduction 441 19.2 Principles of Photoelectrochemical Water Splitting 442 19.3 Design of Water Splitting Devices 448 19.4 Nano- and Microstructured Photoelectrodes 455 19.5 Economic Aspects 457 19.6 Concluding Remarks 457 20 Current Insights to Enhance Hydrogen Production by Photosynthetic Organisms 461 Roshan Sharma Poudyal, Indira Tiwari, Mohammad Mahdi Najafpour, Dmitry A. Los, Robert Carpentier, Jian-Ren Shen, and Suleyman I. Allakhverdiev 20.1 Introduction 461 20.2 Biological H2 Production 463 20.3 Physiology and Biochemistry of Algae and Cyanobacteria for H2 Production 465 20.4 Hydrogenase and Nitrogenase for H2 Production 466 20.5 Photosystems and H2 Production 469 20.6 Factors Affecting Hydrogen Production 470 20.7 Designing the Photosynthetic H2 Production 471 20.8 Leaf and Solar H2 Production 472 20.9 Biofuel and Hydrogen Production by Other Organisms 473 20.10 Available Methods to Enhance Photosynthetic Hydrogen Production 474 20.11 Application of Biohydrogen 477 20.12 Conclusion and Future Prospectus 477 Part 2.6 Gas Clean-up Technologies 489 21 PSA Technology for H2 Separation 491 Carlos A. Grande 21.1 Introduction 491 21.2 Basics of PSA Technology 492 21.3 Selective Adsorbents; Commercial and New Materials 499 21.4 Improving the PSA Cycle 501 21.5 Summary 503 22 Hydrogen Separation with Polymeric Membranes 509 Torsten Brinkmann and Sergey Shishatskiy 22.1 History 509 22.2 Basics of Membrane Gas Separation 510 22.3 Hydrogen Separation and Fractionation by Gas Permeation 516 22.4 Membrane Materials and Modules 519 22.5 Process Examples 531 22.6 Conclusions 535 23 Gas Clean-up for Fuel Cell Systems Requirements & Technologies 543 Matthias Gaderer, Stephan Herrmann, and Sebastian Fendt 23.1 Introduction 543 23.2 Background 543 23.3 Fuel and Pollutants 545 23.4 Pollutant Level Requirements 550 23.5 Technologies to Remove Pollutants 551 Volume 2 Part 3 Hydrogen for Storage of Renewable Energy 563 24 Physics of Hydrogen 565 Carsten Korte, Tabea Mandt, and Timm Bergholz 24.1 Introduction 565 24.2 Molecular Hydrogen 565 24.3 Hydrides 588 24.3.3 Clathrates 597 25 Thermodynamics of Pressurized Gas Storage 601 Vanessa Tietze and Detlef Stolten 25.1 Introduction 601 25.2 Calculation of Thermodynamic State Variables 602 25.3 Comparison of Thermodynamic Properties 606 25.4 Thermodynamic Analysis of Compression and Expansion Processes 610 25.5 Thermodynamic Modeling of the Storage Process 617 25.6 Application Examples 620 25.7 Conclusion 624 26 Geologic Storage of Hydrogen Fundamentals, Processing, and Projects 629 Axel Liebscher, Jurgen Wackerl, and Martin Streibel 26.1 Introduction 629 26.2 Fundamental Aspects of Geological Hydrogen Storage 631 26.3 Process Engineering 642 26.4 Experiences from Storage Projects 649 26.5 Concluding Remarks 654 27 Bulk Storage Vessels for Compressed and Liquid Hydrogen 659 Vanessa Tietze, Sebastian Luhr, and Detlef Stolten 27.1 Introduction 659 27.2 Stationary Application Areas and Requirements 660 27.3 Storage Parameters 661 27.4 Compressed Hydrogen Storage 662 27.5 Cryogenic Liquid Hydrogen Storage 670 27.6 Cost Estimates and Economic Targets 675 27.7 Technical Assessment 678 27.8 Conclusion 683 28 Hydrogen Storage in Vehicles 691 Jens Franzen, Steffen Maus, and Peter Potzel 28.1 Introduction: Requirements for Hydrogen Storage in Vehicles 691 28.2 Advantages of Pressurized Storage over Other Storage Methods 693 28.3 Design of a Tank System 695 28.4 Specific Requirements for Compressed Gas Systems for Vehicles 699 28.5 Special Forms of Compressed Gas Storage 704 28.6 Conclusion 707 29 Cryo-compressed Hydrogen Storage 711 Tobias Brunner and Oliver Kircher 29.1 Motivation for Cryo-compressed Hydrogen Vehicle Storage 711 29.2 Thermodynamic Opportunities 714 29.3 Refueling and Infrastructure Perspectives 717 29.4 Design and Operating Principles 719 29.5 Validation Challenges of Cryo-compressed Hydrogen Vehicle Storage 725 29.6 Summary 731 30 Hydrogen Liquefaction 733 Alexander Alekseev 30.1 Introduction 733 30.2 History of Hydrogen Liquefaction 734 30.3 Hydrogen Properties at Low Temperature 735 30.4 Principles of Hydrogen Liquefaction 739 30.5 Key Hardware Components 751 30.5.2 Expansion Turbine (or Expander or Turbine) 755 30.6 Outlook 760 31 Hydrogen Storage by Reversible Metal Hydride Formation 763 Ping Chen, Etsuo Akiba, Shin-ichi Orimo, Andreas Zuettel, and Louis Schlapbach 31.1 Introduction 763 31.2 Summary of Energy Relevant Properties of Hydrogen and its Isotopes 764 31.3 Hydrogen Interaction with Metals, Alloys and Other Inorganic Solids 764 31.4 Hydrogen Storage in Intermetallic Compounds 767 31.5 Hydrogen Storage in Complex Hydrides 773 31.6 Physisorption and High Open-Porosity Structures for Molecular Hydrogen Storage 781 31.7 Other Energy Relevant Applications of Hydrogen Interacting Materials 784 31.8 Conclusions and Outlook 785 32 Implementing Hydrogen Storage Based on Metal Hydrides 791 R.K. Ahluwalia, J.-K. Peng, and T.Q. Hua 32.1 Introduction 791 32.2 Material Requirements 792 32.3 Reverse Engineering: A Case Study 800 32.4 Summary and Conclusions 807 33 Transport and Storage of Hydrogen via Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) Systems 811 Daniel Teichmann, Wolfgang Arlt, Eberhard Schlucker, and Peter Wasserscheid 33.1 Hydrogen Storage and Transport for Managing Unsteady Renewable Energy Production 811 33.2 Liquid Organic Hydrogen Carrier (LOHC) Systems 814 33.3 Development of LOHC-Based Energy Storage Systems 819 33.4 Applications of LOHC-Based Energy Storage Systems 822 33.5 Conclusions 828 Part 4 Traded Hydrogen 831 34 Economics of Hydrogen for Transportation 833 Akiteru Maruta 34.1 Introduction 833 34.2 Hydrogen Transportation System 833 34.3 Economics of Hydrogen for Transportation 836 34.4 Conclusion 845 35 Challenges and Opportunities of Hydrogen Delivery via Pipeline, Tube-Trailer, LIQUID Tanker and Methanation-Natural Gas Grid 849 Krishna Reddi, Marianne Mintz, Amgad Elgowainy, and Erika Sutherland 35.1 Introduction 849 35.2 Variation in Demand for Hydrogen 850 35.3 Refueling Station Components and Layout 852 35.4 Distributed Production of Hydrogen 856 35.5 Central or Semi-central Production of Hydrogen 857 35.6 Power-to-Gas Mass Energy Solution (Methanation) 866 35.7 Outlook and Summary 870 36 Pipelines for Hydrogen Distribution 875 Sabine Sievers and Dennis Krieg 36.1 Introduction 875 36.2 Overview 875 36.3 Brief Summary of Pipeline Construction 879 36.4 Operation of an H2 Pipeline 886 36.5 Decommissioning/Dismantling/Reclassification 888 36.6 Conclusion 888 37 Refueling Station Layout 891 Patrick Schnell 37.1 Introduction 891 37.2 Basic Requirements for a Hydrogen Refueling Station 892 37.3 Technical Concepts for Hydrogen Filling Stations 895 37.4 Challenges 907 37.5 Conclusion 913 Part 5 Handling of Hydrogen 917 38 Regulations and Codes and Standards for the Approval of Hydrogen Refueling Stations 919 Reinhold Wurster 38.1 Introduction 919 38.2 European Union and Germany 924 39 Safe Handling of Hydrogen 933 William Hoagland 39.1 Introduction 933 39.2 Hydrogen Safety and the Elements of Risk 934 39.3 The Unique, Safety-Related Properties of Hydrogen 937 39.4 General Considerations for the Safe Handling of Hydrogen 938 39.5 Regulations, Codes, and Standards 940 39.6 International Collaborations to Prioritize Hydrogen Safety Research 942 39.7 Current Directions in Hydrogen Safety Research [6] 943 39.8 Summary 947 Part 6 Existing and Emerging Systems 949 40 Hydrogen in Space Applications 951 Jerome Lacapere 40.1 Liquid Hydrogen for Access to Space 951 40.2 To Go Beyond GTO 954 40.3 Relevant Tests in Low Gravity Environment 958 40.4 In-Space Propulsion 960 40.5 Conclusion 961 41 Transportation/Propulsion/Demonstration/Buses: The Design of the Fuel Cell Powertrain for Urban Transportation Applications (Daimler) 965 Wolfram Fleck 41.1 Introduction 965 41.2 Operational Environment 966 41.3 Requirements 967 41.4 Design Solutions 973 41.5 Test and Field Experience 982 41.6 Future Outlook 986 42 Hydrogen and Fuel Cells in Submarines 991 Stefan Krummrich and Albert Hammerschmidt 42.1 Background 991 42.2 The HDW Fuel Cell AIP System 992 42.3 PEM Fuel Cells for Submarines 993 42.4 Hydrogen Storage 1002 42.5 The Usage of Pure Oxygen 1004 42.6 System Technology Differences Between HDW Class 212A and Class 214 Submarines 1005 42.7 Safety Concept 1006 42.8 Developments for the Future Methanol Reformer for Submarines 1006 42.9 Conclusion 1009 43 Gas Turbines and Hydrogen 1011 Peter Griebel 43.1 Introduction 1011 43.2 Combustion Fundamentals of Hydrogen relevant for Gas Turbines 1012 43.3 State-of-the-art Gas Turbine Technology for Hydrogen 1019 43.4 Research and Development Status, New Combustion Technologies 1022 43.5 Concluding Remarks 1028 44 Hydrogen Hybrid Power Plant in Prenzlau, Brandenburg 1033 Ulrich R. Fischer, Hans-Joachim Krautz, Michael Wenske, Daniel Tannert, Perco Kruger, and Christian Ziems 44.1 Introduction 1033 44.2 Description of the Concept of the Hybrid Power Plant at Prenzlau 1035 44.3 Operating Modes of the Hybrid Power Plant 1042 44.4 Operational Management and Experiences 1045 44.5 Outlook 1050 45 Wind Energy and Hydrogen Integration Projects in Spain 1053 Luis Correas, Jesus Simon, and Milagros Rey 45.1 Introduction 1053 45.2 The Role of Hydrogen in Wind Electricity Generation 1055 45.3 Description of Wind Hydrogen Projects 1059 45.4 Operation Strategies Tested in the Sotavento Project 1066 45.5 Conclusions 1071 46 Hydrogen Islands Utilization of Renewable Energy for an Autonomous Power Supply 1075 Frano Barbir 46.1 Introduction 1075 46.2 Existing Hydrogen Projects on Islands 1077 46.3 System Design/Configuration 1082 46.4 Key Technologies 1083 46.5 System Issues 1087 46.6 Sizing 1088 46.7 Energy Management 1090 46.8 Other Uses/System Configurations 1092 46.9 Conclusions 1093 References 1094 Index 1097

Product Details

  • publication date: 10/02/2016
  • ISBN13: 9783527332380
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 1220
  • ID: 9783527332380
  • weight: 2874
  • ISBN10: 3527332383

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