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Hydrogeochemistry Fundamentals and Advances: Volume 2 - Mass Transfer and Mass Transport (Volume 2 ed.)

Hydrogeochemistry Fundamentals and Advances: Volume 2 - Mass Transfer and Mass Transport (Volume 2 ed.)

By: Viatcheslav V. Tikhomi (author)Hardback

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Contents

Abstract xi Preface xiii Spontaneous Processes and Mineral Equilibrium xv 1 Chemical Reactions 1 1.1 Real Water Solution 2 1.1.1 Properties of Water Solution 3 1.1.2 Composition of Water Solution 7 1.1.3 Structure of the Water Solution 13 1.1.4 Basis Components of a Solution 18 1.2 Spontaneous Processes 21 1.2.1 Energy of Spontaneous Processes 25 1.2.2 Direction of the Spontaneous Processes 27 1.2.3 Chemical Potential 28 1.2.4 Thermodynamical Concentration 32 1.2.4.1 Activities in Ideal Solutions 33 1.2.4.2 Activities in Real Solutions 37 1.3 Chemical Reactions 48 1.3.1 Restrictions of Spontaneous Reactions 49 1.3.2 Law of Mass Action 52 1.3.3 Equilibrium Constants of Reactions 55 1.3.4 Direction of Reactions 61 1.3.5 Reaction Rate 65 1.3.5.1 Elementary Reactions 66 1.3.5.2 Complex Reactions 72 1.3.6 Dependent and Independent Reactions 77 2 Hydrogeochemical Processes 81 2.1 Homogenous Processes 82 2.1.1 Electron Exchange 82 2.1.1.1 The Mechanism of Redox Processes 84 2.1.1.2 Oxidation Potential 88 2.1.1.3 Determination of Oxidation Potential 91 2.1.1.4 Oxygen Fugacity 97 2.1.2 Proton Exchange 98 2.1.2.1 Mechanism of Acid-based Reactions 99 2.1.2.2 Hydrogen Parameter 100 2.1.2.3 Buffer Systems 103 2.1.2.4 Determination of Solution s pH 105 2.1.3 Complexation 107 2.1.3.1 Mechanism of Complexation 108 2.1.3.2 Stability of Complex Formations 115 2.1.3.3 Complexation Function 119 2.1.4 Real Composition of Water 125 2.1.4.1 Rates of Homogenous Processes 126 2.1.4.2 Ionic Equilibrium in the Solution 127 2.1.4.3 Models of Water Solution s Composition 130 2.2 Heterogeneous Processes 134 2.2.1 Phase Rules 136 2.2.2 Mass Transfer by Mineral Components 140 2.2.2.1 Mineral-salt Complex of Rocks 142 2.2.2.2 Adsorption and Desorption 146 2.2.2.3 Ion Exchange 161 2.2.2.4 Surface Complexation 187 2.2.2.5 Adsorption and Desorption Rate 201 2.2.2.6 Dissolution and Minerogenesis 207 2.2.3 Mass Transfer of Nonpolar Components 304 2.2.3.1 Mass Transfer with Underground Gas 312 2.2.3.2 Mass Transfer with Nonpolar Substances 325 2.2.3.3 Distribution of Nonpolar Components 341 2.2.4 Equilibrium of Heterogeneous Processes 343 2.3 Bio-geochemical Processes 347 2.3.1 Biogeochemical Cycle 348 2.3.2 Niches of the Detrital Trophic Chain 354 2.3.3 Biodegradation of Organic Matter 370 2.2.3.1 Reactions of Biodegradation 372 2.3.3.2 Digestion 377 2.3.4 Rates of Biochemical Processes 383 2.3.5 Redox Geochemical Zoning 392 2.4 Isotopic Processes 399 2.4.1 Radioactive Decay 400 2.4.1.1 Primordial Radionuclides 400 2.4.1.2 Cosmogenic Radionuclides 403 2.4.2 Balanced Fractionating 407 2.4.3 Isotopic Mixing 414 2.4.4 Ground Water Chronometry 416 3 Migration of Elements 421 3.1 Migration forms 422 3.1.1 Subsurface Transporters 423 3.1.2 Aquaphiles 426 3.1.2.1 Estimates of Migration Capability 427 3.1.2.2 Properties of Aquaphilic Migration Forms 451 3.1.3 Organophiles 480 3.1.3.1 Amphiphilic Organophiles 481 3.1.3.2 Nonpolar Organophiles 486 3.1.4 Gasophiles 487 3.2 Mixing and Mass Transport 494 3.2.1 Hydrodynamic Dispersion 496 3.2.1.1 Diffusion Mixing 496 3.2.1.2 Advective Mixing 502 3.2.1.3 Dynamic Dispersivity and Methods of its Determination 505 3.2.2 Advection-dispersion Mass Transport 510 3.2.2.1 Equation of Advection-dispersion Mass Transport 511 3.2.2.2 Analytical Solution of Mass Transport Equations 513 4 Hydrogeochemical Forecasting 541 4.1 Methods of Forecasting 541 4.2 Model Forecasting Method 545 4.2.1 Problem Identification 547 4.2.2 Construction of Mathematical Models 548 4.2.2.1 Types of Hydrogeochemical Models 550 4.2.2.2 Selection of a Computation Process 559 4.2.2.3 Input Data 565 4.2.2.4 Selection of the Program Software 569 4.2.3 Reliability of Model Forecasting Results 570 Symbols 581 References 593 Normative Publications 608 Appendices 609 I Thermodynamic Properties of Mineral Forms of Migration 609 II The Partition Coefficients of the Gas Components 609 III Physical and Chemical Properties of Organic Compounds 609 APPENDIX I Thermodynamic Properties of Mineral Forms of Migration 611 A. Cation Generating Elements 611 B. Complex Generating Elements 627 C. Ligand Generating Elements 668 D. Salt and Minerals 677 APPENDIX II The Partition Coefficients of the Gas Components 685 . Underground Gases of Methane Composition 685 B. Underground Gases of Nitrogen Composition 695 C. Underground Gases of Carbon dioxide Composition 697 APPENDIX III Physical and Chemical Properties of Organic Compounds. 698 A. Physical and Chemical Properties of Organic Carbon Compounds 698 B. Physical and Chemical Properties of Pesticides 709 Index 715

Product Details

  • ISBN13: 9781119160458
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 752
  • ID: 9781119160458
  • weight: 1104
  • ISBN10: 1119160456
  • edition: Volume 2 ed.

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