Hyperspectral Data Processing: Algorithm Design and Analysis

Hyperspectral Data Processing: Algorithm Design and Analysis

By: Chein-I Chang (author)Hardback

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Description

Hyperspectral Data Processing: Algorithm Design and Analysis is a culmination of the research conducted in the Remote Sensing Signal and Image Processing Laboratory (RSSIPL) at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. Specifically, it treats hyperspectral image processing and hyperspectral signal processing as separate subjects in two different categories. Most materials covered in this book can be used in conjunction with the author s first book, Hyperspectral Imaging: Techniques for Spectral Detection and Classification, without much overlap. Many results in this book are either new or have not been explored, presented, or published in the public domain. These include various aspects of endmember extraction, unsupervised linear spectral mixture analysis, hyperspectral information compression, hyperspectral signal coding and characterization, as well as applications to conceal target detection, multispectral imaging, and magnetic resonance imaging. Hyperspectral Data Processing contains eight major sections: * Part I: provides fundamentals of hyperspectral data processing * Part II: offers various algorithm designs for endmember extraction * Part III: derives theory for supervised linear spectral mixture analysis * Part IV: designs unsupervised methods for hyperspectral image analysis * Part V: explores new concepts on hyperspectral information compression * Parts VI & VII: develops techniques for hyperspectral signal coding and characterization * Part VIII: presents applications in multispectral imaging and magnetic resonance imaging Hyperspectral Data Processing compiles an algorithm compendium with MATLAB codes in an appendix to help readers implement many important algorithms developed in this book and write their own program codes without relying on software packages. Hyperspectral Data Processing is a valuable reference for those who have been involved with hyperspectral imaging and its techniques, as well those who are new to the subject.

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About Author

CHEIN-I CHANG, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Computer Science and Electrical Engineering at the University of Maryland, Baltimore County. He established the Remote Sensing Signal and Image Processing Laboratory and conducts research in designing and developing signal processing algorithms for hyperspectral imaging, medical imaging, and documentation analysis. A Fellow of IEEE and SPIE, Dr. Chang has published over 125 refereed journal articles, including more than forty papers in the IEEE Transaction on Geoscience and Remote Sensing. In addition to authoring Hyperspectral Imaging: Techniques for Spectral Detection and Classification, as well as editing two books, Hyperspectral Data Exploitation: Theory and Applications and Recent Advances in Hyperspectral Signal and Imaging Processing and co-editing one book, High Performance Computing in Remote Sensing, he holds five patents and has several pending.

Contents

PREFACE xxiii 1 OVERVIEWAND INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 Overview 2 1.2 Issues of Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imageries 3 1.3 Divergence of Hyperspectral Imagery from Multispectral Imagery 4 1.4 Scope of This Book 7 1.5 Book s Organization 10 1.6 Laboratory Data to be Used in This Book 19 1.7 Real Hyperspectral Images to be Used in this Book 20 1.8 Notations and Terminologies to be Used in this Book 29 I: PRELIMINARIES 31 2 FUNDAMENTALS OF SUBSAMPLE AND MIXED SAMPLE ANALYSES 33 2.1 Introduction 33 2.2 Subsample Analysis 35 2.3 Mixed Sample Analysis 45 2.4 Kernel-Based Classification 57 2.5 Conclusions 60 3 THREE-DIMENSIONAL RECEIVER OPERATING CHARACTERISTICS (3D ROC) ANALYSIS 63 3.1 Introduction 63 3.2 Neyman Pearson Detection Problem Formulation 65 3.3 ROC Analysis 67 3.4 3D ROC Analysis 69 3.5 Real Data-Based ROC Analysis 72 3.6 Examples 78 3.7 Conclusions 99 4 DESIGN OF SYNTHETIC IMAGE EXPERIMENTS 101 4.1 Introduction 102 4.2 Simulation of Targets of Interest 103 4.3 Six Scenarios of Synthetic Images 104 4.4 Applications 112 4.5 Conclusions 123 5 VIRTUAL DIMENSIONALITY OF HYPERSPECTRAL DATA 124 5.1 Introduction 124 5.2 Reinterpretation of VD 126 5.3 VD Determined by Data Characterization-Driven Criteria 126 5.4 VD Determined by Data Representation-Driven Criteria 140 5.5 Synthetic Image Experiments 144 5.6 VD Estimated for Real Hyperspectral Images 155 5.7 Conclusions 163 6 DATA DIMENSIONALITY REDUCTION 168 6.1 Introduction 168 6.2 Dimensionality Reduction by Second-Order Statistics-Based Component Analysis Transforms 170 6.3 Dimensionality Reduction by High-Order Statistics-Based Components Analysis Transforms 179 6.4 Dimensionality Reduction by Infinite-Order Statistics-Based Components Analysis Transforms 184 6.5 Dimensionality Reduction by Projection Pursuit-Based Components Analysis Transforms 190 6.6 Dimensionality Reduction by Feature Extraction-Based Transforms 195 6.7 Dimensionality Reduction by Band Selection 196 6.8 Constrained Band Selection 197 6.9 Conclusions 198 II: ENDMEMBER EXTRACTION 201 7 SIMULTANEOUS ENDMEMBER EXTRACTION ALGORITHMS (SM-EEAs) 207 7.1 Introduction 208 7.2 Convex Geometry-Based Endmember Extraction 209 7.3 Second-Order Statistics-Based Endmember Extraction 228 7.4 Automated Morphological Endmember Extraction (AMEE) 230 7.5 Experiments 231 7.6 Conclusions 239 8 SEQUENTIAL ENDMEMBER EXTRACTION ALGORITHMS (SQ-EEAs) 241 8.1 Introduction 241 8.2 Successive N-FINDR (SC N-FINDR) 244 8.3 Simplex Growing Algorithm (SGA) 244 8.4 Vertex Component Analysis (VCA) 247 8.5 Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis-Based SQ-EEAs 248 8.6 High-Order Statistics-Based SQ-EEAS 252 8.7 Experiments 254 8.8 Conclusions 262 9 INITIALIZATION-DRIVEN ENDMEMBER EXTRACTION ALGORITHMS (ID-EEAs) 265 9.1 Introduction 265 9.2 Initialization Issues 266 9.3 Initialization-Driven EEAs 271 9.4 Experiments 278 9.5 Conclusions 283 10 RANDOM ENDMEMBER EXTRACTION ALGORITHMS (REEAs) 287 10.1 Introduction 287 10.2 Random PPI (RPPI) 288 10.3 Random VCA (RVCA) 290 10.4 Random N-FINDR (RN-FINDR) 290 10.5 Random SGA (RSGA) 292 10.6 Random ICA-Based EEA (RICA-EEA) 292 10.7 Synthetic Image Experiments 293 10.8 Real Image Experiments 305 10.9 Conclusions 313 11 EXPLORATION ON RELATIONSHIPS AMONG ENDMEMBER EXTRACTION ALGORITHMS 316 11.1 Introduction 316 11.2 Orthogonal Projection-Based EEAs 318 11.3 Comparative Study and Analysis Between SGA and VCA 330 11.4 Does an Endmember Set Really Yield Maximum Simplex Volume? 339 11.5 Impact of Dimensionality Reduction on EEAs 344 11.6 Conclusions 348 III: SUPERVISED LINEAR HYPERSPECTRAL MIXTURE ANALYSIS 351 12 ORTHOGONAL SUBSPACE PROJECTION REVISITED 355 12.1 Introduction 355 12.2 Three Perspectives to Derive OSP 358 12.3 Gaussian Noise in OSP 364 12.4 OSP Implemented with Partial Knowledge 372 12.5 OSP Implemented Without Knowledge 383 12.6 Conclusions 390 13 FISHER S LINEAR SPECTRAL MIXTURE ANALYSIS 391 13.1 Introduction 391 13.2 Feature Vector-Constrained FLSMA (FVC-FLSMA) 392 13.3 Relationship Between FVC-FLSMA and LCMV, TCIMF, and CEM 395 13.4 Relationship Between FVC-FLSMA and OSP 396 13.5 Relationship Between FVC-FLSMA and LCDA 396 13.6 Abundance-Constrained Least Squares FLDA (ACLS-FLDA) 397 13.7 Synthetic Image Experiments 398 13.8 Real Image Experiments 402 13.9 Conclusions 409 14 WEIGHTED ABUNDANCE-CONSTRAINED LINEAR SPECTRAL MIXTURE ANALYSIS 411 14.1 Introduction 411 14.2 Abundance-Constrained LSMA (AC-LSMA) 413 14.3 Weighted Least-Squares Abundance-Constrained LSMA 413 14.4 Synthetic Image-Based Computer Simulations 419 14.5 Real Image Experiments 426 14.6 Conclusions 432 15 KERNEL-BASED LINEAR SPECTRAL MIXTURE ANALYSIS 434 15.1 Introduction 434 15.2 Kernel-Based LSMA (KLSMA) 436 15.3 Synthetic Image Experiments 441 15.4 AVIRIS Data Experiments 444 15.5 HYDICE Data Experiments 460 15.6 Conclusions 462 IV: UNSUPERVISED HYPERSPECTRAL IMAGE ANALYSIS 465 16 HYPERSPECTRAL MEASURES 469 16.1 Introduction 469 16.2 Signature Vector-Based Hyperspectral Measures for Target Discrimanition and Identification 470 16.3 Correlation-Weighted Hyperspectral Measures for Target Discrimanition and Identification 472 16.4 Experiments 477 16.5 Conclusions 482 17 UNSUPERVISED LINEAR HYPERSPECTRAL MIXTURE ANALYSIS 483 17.1 Introduction 483 17.2 Least Squares-Based ULSMA 486 17.3 Component Analysis-Based ULSMA 488 17.4 Synthetic Image Experiments 490 17.5 Real-Image Experiments 503 17.6 ULSMAVersus Endmember Extraction 517 17.7 Conclusions 524 18 PIXEL EXTRACTION AND INFORMATION 526 18.1 Introduction 526 18.2 Four Types of Pixels 527 18.3 Algorithms Selected to Extract Pixel Information 528 18.4 Pixel Information Analysis via Synthetic Images 528 18.5 Real Image Experiments 534 18.6 Conclusions 539 V: HYPERSPECTRAL INFORMATION COMPRESSION 541 19 EXPLOITATION-BASED HYPERSPECTRAL DATA COMPRESSION 545 19.1 Introduction 545 19.2 Hyperspectral Information Compression Systems 547 19.3 Spectral/Spatial Compression 549 19.4 Progressive Spectral/Spatial Compression 557 19.5 3D Compression 557 19.6 Exploration-Based Applications 559 19.7 Experiments 561 19.8 Conclusions 580 20 PROGRESSIVE SPECTRAL DIMENSIONALITY PROCESS 581 20.1 Introduction 582 20.2 Dimensionality Prioritization 584 20.3 Representation of Transformed Components for DP 585 20.4 Progressive Spectral Dimensionality Process 589 20.5 Hyperspectral Compression by PSDP 597 20.6 Experiments for PSDP 598 20.7 Conclusions 608 21 PROGRESSIVE BAND DIMENSIONALITY PROCESS 613 21.1 Introduction 614 21.2 Band Prioritization 615 21.3 Criteria for Band Prioritization 617 21.4 Experiments for BP 624 21.5 Progressive Band Dimensionality Process 651 21.6 Hyperspectral Compresssion by PBDP 653 21.7 Experiments for PBDP 656 21.8 Conclusions 662 22 DYNAMIC DIMENSIONALITYALLOCATION 664 22.1 Introduction 664 22.2 Dynamic Dimensionality Allocaction 665 22.3 Signature Discriminatory Probabilties 667 22.4 Coding Techniques for Determining DDA 667 22.5 Experiments for Dynamic Dimensionality Allocation 669 22.6 Conclusions 682 23 PROGRESSIVE BAND SELECTION 683 23.1 Introduction 683 23.2 Band De-Corrleation 684 23.3 Progressive Band Selection 686 23.4 Experiments for Progressive Band Selection 688 23.5 Endmember Extraction 688 23.6 Land Cover/Use Classification 690 23.7 Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis 694 23.8 Conclusions 715 VI: HYPERSPECTRAL SIGNAL CODING 717 24 BINARY CODING FOR SPECTRAL SIGNATURES 719 24.1 Introduction 719 24.2 Binary Coding 720 24.3 Spectral Feature-Based Coding 723 24.4 Experiments 725 24.5 Conclusions 740 25 VECTOR CODING FOR HYPERSPECTRAL SIGNATURES 741 25.1 Introduction 741 25.2 Spectral Derivative Feature Coding 743 25.3 Spectral Feature Probabilistic Coding 755 25.4 Real Image Experiments 764 25.5 Conclusions 771 26 PROGRESSIVE CODING FOR SPECTRAL SIGNATURES 772 26.1 Introduction 772 26.2 Multistage Pulse Code Modulation 774 26.3 MPCM-Based Progressive Spectral Signature Coding 783 26.4 NIST-GAS Data Experiments 786 26.5 Real Image Hyperspectral Experiments 790 26.6 Conclusions 796 VII: HYPERSPECTRAL SIGNAL CHARACTERIZATION 797 27 VARIABLE-NUMBERVARIABLE-BAND SELECTION FOR HYPERSPECTRAL SIGNALS 799 27.1 Introduction 799 27.2 Orthogonal Subspace Projection-Based Band Prioritization Criterion 801 27.3 Variable-Number Variable-Band Selection 803 27.4 Experiments 806 27.5 Selection of Reference Signatures 819 27.6 Conclusions 819 28 KALMAN FILTER-BASED ESTIMATION FOR HYPERSPECTRAL SIGNALS 820 28.1 Introduction 820 28.2 Kalman Filter-Based Linear Unmixing 822 28.3 Kalman Filter-Based Spectral Characterization Signal-Processing Techniques 824 28.4 Computer Simulations Using AVIRIS Data 831 28.5 Computer Simulations Using NIST-Gas Data 843 28.6 Real Data Experiments 852 28.7 Conclusions 857 29 WAVELET REPRESENTATION FOR HYPERSPECTRAL SIGNALS 859 29.1 Introduction 859 29.2 Wavelet Analysis 860 29.2.1 Multiscale Approximation 860 29.2.2 Scaling Function 861 29.2.3 Wavelet Function 862 29.3 Wavelet-Based Signature Characterization Algorithm 863 29.4 Synthetic Image-Based Computer Simulations 868 29.5 Real Image Experiments 871 29.6 Conclusions 875 VIII: APPLICATIONS 877 30 APPLICATIONS OF TARGET DETECTION 879 30.1 Introduction 879 30.2 Size Estimation of Subpixel Targets 880 30.3 Experiments 881 30.4 Concealed Target Detection 891 30.5 Computer-Aided Detection and Classification Algorithm for Concealed Targets 892 30.6 Experiments for Concealed Target Detection 893 30.7 Conclusions 895 31 NONLINEAR DIMENSIONALITY EXPANSION TO MULTISPECTRAL IMAGERY 897 31.1 Introduction 897 31.2 Band Dimensionality Expansion 899 31.3 Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques Expanded by BDE 902 31.4 Feature Dimensionality Expansion by Nonlinear Kernels 904 31.5 BDE in Conjunction with FDE 909 31.6 Multispectral Image Experiments 909 31.7 Conclusion 918 32 MULTISPECTRAL MAGNETIC RESONANCE IMAGING 920 32.1 Introduction 920 32.2 Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis for MRI 923 32.3 Linear Spectral Random Mixture Analysis for MRI 928 32.4 Kernel-Based Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis 933 32.5 Synthetic MR Brain Image Experiments 933 32.6 Real MR Brain Image Experiments 951 32.7 Conclusions 955 33 CONCLUSIONS 956 33.1 Design Principles for Nonliteral Hyperspectral Imaging Techniques 956 33.2 Endmember Extraction 964 33.3 Linear Spectral Mixture Analysis 970 33.4 Anomaly Detection 974 33.5 Support Vector Machines and Kernel-Based Approaches 977 33.6 Hyperspectral Compression 981 33.7 Hyperspectral Signal Processing 984 33.8 Applications 987 33.9 Further Topics 987 GLOSSARY 993 APPENDIX: ALGORITHM COMPENDIUM 997 REFERENCES 1052 INDEX 1071

Product Details

  • publication date: 22/03/2013
  • ISBN13: 9780471690566
  • Format: Hardback
  • Number Of Pages: 1164
  • ID: 9780471690566
  • weight: 2086
  • ISBN10: 0471690562

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