ICRP Publication 100: Human Alimentary Tract Model for Radiological Protection (Annals of the ICRP)
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This report provides reviews of information on the transit of materials through the alimentary tract and on radionuclide retention and absorption. It considers data on health effects, principally in order to specify the target cells for cancer induction within the mucosal lining of the tract and to justify approaches taken to dose averaging within regions. Comparisons are made between doses calculated using the HATM and the Publication 30 model for examples of radionuclide ingestion for which absorption is assumed to occur in the small intestine alone. Examples are also given of the effect on doses of considering absorption from other regions and the effect of possible retention in the alimentary tract. This report also considers uncertainties in model assumptions and their effect on doses, including alimentary tract dimensions, transit times, radionuclide absorption values, and the location of targets for cancer induction.
1. INTRODUCTION 1.1. The purpose of this report 1.2. Model used in ICRP Publication 30 1.3. The need for a new model 1.4. Model development 1.5. Structure of the report 2. ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF THE ALIMENTARY TRACT SYSTEM 2.1. Introduction 2.2. General features 2.3. Alimentation 2.4. Vascular supply and drainage 2.5. Micro-anatomy of the alimentary tract 2.6. Epithelia of the alimentary tract 3. ABSORPTION, RETENTION, AND SECRETION OF RADIONUCLIDES IN THE HUMAN ALIMENTARY TRACT 3.1. Introduction 3.2. Radionuclide absorption 3.3. Radionuclide retention 3.4. Radionuclide secretion 3.5. Examples used in this report 4. RADIATION EFFECTS 4.1. Introduction 4.2. Target cells 4.3. Radiation-induced cancers in humans 4.4. Tissue damage 5. DESCRIPTION OF THE MODEL 5.1. Overview 5.2. Main differences from the ICRP Publication 30 model 5.3. Details of the model structure 5.4. Radionuclide-specific examples of the use of the model 6. TRANSIT TIMES THROUGH THE ALIMENTARY TRACT 6.1. Introduction 6.2. Mouth 6.3. Oesophagus 6.4. Stomach 6.5. Small intestine 6.6. Colon and rectum 6.7. Transfer coefficients 6.8. Uncertainty and variability 7. MORPHOMETRY AND DOSIMETRY 7.1. Introduction 7.2. Morphometry 7.3. Dosimetry 8. USE OF THE MODEL 8.1. Introduction 8.2. Examples of doses using the HATM 8.3. Uncertainties 8.4. Key features of the HATM ANNEX A: EMBRYOLOGY AND ANATOMY OF THE HUMAN ALIMENTARY TRACT A.1. Introduction A.2. Embryology of the human alimentary tract A.3. General overview of the postnatal alimentary tract A.4. Oral cavity, pharynx, and associated structures A.5. Oesophagus A.6. Stomach A.7. Liver, biliary tree, and pancreas A.8. Small intestine A.9. Large intestine A.10. Rectum and anal canal ANNEX B: PHYSIOLOGY OF THE HUMAN ALIMENTARY TRACT B.1. Introduction B.2. Physiology of alimentary tract motility B.3. Physiology of blood and lymph circulation in the alimentary tract B.4. Inputs and secretions in the alimentary tract B.5. Bacterial flora in the alimentary tract B.6. Digestion, absorption, and retention in the gastrointestinal tract ANNEX C: REVIEW OF TRANSIT TIMES THROUGH MAJOR SEGMENTS OF THE ALIMENTARY TRACT C.1. Mouth C.2. Oesophagus C.3. Stomach C.4. Small intestine C.5. Large intestine ANNEX D: ABSORPTION AND RETENTION OF RADIONUCLIDES D.1. Introduction D.2. Oral cavity D.3. Oesophagus D.4. Stomach D.5. Small intestine D.6. Large intestine D.7. Appendix ANNEX E: CONSISTENCY BETWEEN THE HATM AND THE HRTM ANNEX F: ABSORBED FRACTIONS FOR ELECTRON EMISSIONS REFERENCES ERRATA TO ICRP PUBLICATION 95
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