ICRP Publication 95: Doses to Infants from Ingestion of Radionuclides in Mother's Milk (Annals of the ICRP)
By: ICRP (author)Paperback
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In the present report, ICRP provides information on radiation doses to the infant due to intakes of radionuclides in maternal milk. As in Publication 88 (ICRP, 2001) on doses to the embryo and fetus following intakes of radionuclides by the mother, intakes by female members of the public and female workers are addressed. Acute and chronic intakes are considered at various times before and during pregnancy as well as during the period of breastfeeding. Dose coefficients per unit intake by the mother (Sv/Bq) are given for the selected radionuclides of the same 31 elements for which age-specific biokinetic models were given in Publications 56, 67, 69, and 71. For these elements, doses were calculated for the most radiologically significant natural or artificial radionuclides that might be released into the environment due to various human activities. Dose coefficients are also given in this report for radionuclides of an additional four elements: sodium, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium.
ABSTRACT GUEST EDITORIAL PREFACE 5 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 8 1. INTRODUCTION 17 BACKGROUND 17 Security of Radiation Sources 17 Radiation-Related Malevolence 18 AIM OF THE REPORT 19 INTENDED AUDIENCE 21 2. CHARACTERIZING THE SITUATION 22 POTENTIAL SCENARIOS 22 Threat 22 Initiators 23 Common Features 24 SPECIAL FEATURES 25 Location 25 Public Perception 25 Source Term Characterization 26 Covert Situations 26 Public Sentiment 27 Advance Warning 27 Criminal Investigation 28 Challenges 29 PLANNING 29 All-hazard Planning 30 Disaster Management 31 Medical Preparedness 31 Psychological Issues 32 Exercises 33 EXPOSURE 34 Quantification 34 Pathways 36 INITIAL REACTION 38 Reacting to an Explosion 38 Reacting to an IND 38 RESPONSE PHASES 39 Rescue and Early Actions 39 Recovery 40 Restoration 40 LINKS 40 3. POTENTIAL HEALTH EFFECTS ATTRIBUTABLE TO RADIATION EXPOSURE 42 BIOLOGICAL HEALTH EFFECTS 42 Deterministic effects 42 Stochastic effects 43 Prenatal exposure effects 43 Other issues with pregnant women and children 45 Special considerations for INDs 45 Summary of Biological Health Consequences 46 PSYCHOLOGICAL HEALTH EFFECTS 46 Distress 47 Fear of Cancer and other Health Effects attributable to Radiation 47 4. PROTECTING RESPONDERS 48 OCCUPATIONAL PROTECTION APPROACH 49 Occupational Dose Guidelines 50 OCCUPATIONAL PROTECTION TECHNIQUES 52 Managing Field Exposures 52 Protective Clothing 53 Respiratory Protection 54 5. PROTECTING THE PUBLIC 54 RESCUE PHASE (IMMEDIATE ACTIONS) 54 Controlling access and spread of contamination 55 Immediate care of people with traumatic injuries 56 Triage Dose Assessment 58 Psychological triage and disposition 59 Respiratory protection 60 RESCUE PHASE (URGENT ACTIONS) 60 Personal Decontamination 60 Sheltering 61 Evacuation 64 Iodine Prophylaxis 66 RECOVERY PHASE 68 Refined Dose Assessment 68 Biological assays 68 Temporary Relocation and Resettlement 70 RESTORATION PHASE 71 Cleanup 71 Management of Radioactive Waste 73 Radioactive Residues 74 Discontinuation of Protective Actions 75 Final dose assessment 76 SUMMARY OF DOSE CRITERIA FOR PROTECTING THE PUBLIC 77 Generic Optimized Protection Levels 77 Operational Levels 78 CONTROLLING CONTAMINATION OF CONSUMER GOODS 78 Basic Criteria 79 International consensus on radiological criteria for radionuclides in commodities 80 Radionuclides in Bulk Amounts of Materials 80 Radionuclides in Foods 81 Radionuclides in Water Supplies 82 Control in the Affected Area 84 Control Outside the Affected Area 84 PARTICULAR SITUATIONS 84 Handling Situations with Hot Particles 84 Handling Contaminated Corpses 85 6. MEDICAL INTERVENTION 87 ESSENTIAL ELEMENTS OF MEDICAL TREATMENT 87 OTHER IMPORTANT MEDICAL ISSUES 89 Identification of radionuclides 89 Secondary treatment centers 89 Biodosimetry 90 Skilled personnel 90 Training Medical Personnel 91 Long term follow-up 91 7. COMMUNICATION 92 REFERENCES 94 ANNEX I: TERMINOLOGY 99 ANNEX II: POTENTIAL SCENARIOS 110 Malicious Intent 110 Unannounced Events 110 Thefts 110
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