Identity is not a fact of the world. It is materialized in and through communication practices that constitute the social world of everyday meaning. This is the argument put forth in this volume. These studies examine how, when and with what consequence identity is represented and becomes contextually relevant. It is in these senses that identity ""matters"" across a variety of naturally occurring everyday settings and problem situations. The book contributes to contemporary interest in identity and communication-based explanation within everyday and professional practices and methods of inquiry for naturalist study that integrate qualitative and quantitative approaches to analysis and interpretation.