Immersed tunnels have been around for more than a century but remain a relatively unknown form of tunnel construction. For waterway crossings they are an effective alternative to bored tunnels and bridges, particularly in shallower waters, soft alluvial soils, and earthquake-prone areas. Successful implementation requires a thorough understanding of a wide variety of civil engineering disciplines and construction techniques. Immersed Tunnels brings together in one volume all aspects of immersed tunnels from initial feasibility and planning, through design and construction, to operation and maintenance. Get Valuable Insights into Immersed Tunnel Engineering from Expert Practitioners The book presents design and construction principles to give a full appreciation not only of what is involved in an immersed tunnel scheme but also how potential problems are dealt with and overcome. It examines important factors that have to be considered, particularly environmental implications and mechanical and electrical systems. It also gives practical examples of how specific techniques have been used in various projects and highlights issues that designers and constructors should be aware of.
In addition, the book discusses operation and maintenance and reviews contractual matters. These aspects are described from the viewpoint of two experienced practitioners in the field who have a wealth of experience on immersed tunnel projects worldwide. As tunnels are increasingly being adopted as engineering solutions around the world, this unique and extensively illustrated reference explores the wide variety of immersed tunnel techniques available to designers and constructors. It provides essential insight for anyone involved, or seeking to be involved, with immersed tunnel projects.
Richard Lunniss is director of civil engineering at Capita Symonds. Jonathan Baber is a project director at Mott MacDonald and vice animateur of the International Tunnelling Association Working Group for Immersed and Floating Tunnels. Lunniss and Baber have been extensively involved, over 25- and 20-year periods respectively, in the design and construction of immersed tunnels worldwide. Their completed schemes include: * Conwy Tunnel (UK) * Medway Tunnel (UK) * Jack Lynch Tunnel (Cork, Ireland) * Airport Railway Tunnel (Hong Kong) * Preveza Tunnel (Greece) *Oresund Tunnel (Copenhagen, Denmark) * Fort Point Channel Tunnel (Boston, USA) * Bjorvika Tunnel (Oslo, Norway) * Limerick Tunnel (Ireland) They have also undertaken feasibility and tender designs for several other immersed tunnel projects, and given advice to funders on PFI schemes.
Introduction Development of the Immersed Tunnel Steel shell tunnels Concrete tunnels Composite sandwich tunnels Tunnels in Japan Growth in immersed tunnels worldwide Current Forms of Immersed Tunnel Monolithic concrete element construction Segmental concrete element construction Prestressed concrete Single steel shell Double steel shell Composite concrete steel sandwich Developing an Immersed Tunnel Scheme Selection of bridge or tunnel Tunnel cross section Alignment Junction with cut and cover tunnels Number of tunnel elements Geotechnical Structural options Element construction Environmental considerations Disruption to navigation Cost Operation and maintenance costs Construction program Environmental Impact Short-term versus long-term impacts Tunnel approaches Marine works Fisheries Algae Water quality Visual aspects Portals Noise Air quality Marine Environment Hydrography Hydraulic effects Modeling Mechanical and Electrical Installations Road tunnel safety Incident detection and management Emergency escape Railway tunnel safety Ventilation Lighting Control systems Power supply Drainage Tunnel Approaches and Service Buildings Forms of approaches Cut and cover tunnels Approach ramps Interface with immersed tunnel Construction sequence Connection to bored tunnels Use of tunnel approaches as the casting basin Service building facilities Layout of tunnel portal areas Design Principles Structure sizing Stability and buoyancy Design loadings Temporary load conditions Design codes Load combinations Structural analysis Structural design Settlement modeling Seismic design Joints Immersion joints Segment joints Terminal joints Closure joints Crown seal joint Seismic joints Durability Watertightness Concrete mix design Early age crack control Membranes Corrosion prevention strategies Cathodic protection Durability of watertight seals Internal coatings Foundations Foundation layer Sand foundation layers Gravel foundation layers Grouted foundations Piled foundations Ground improvement Earthworks Dredging Backfill Cut-and-cover tunnel earthworks Casting basin Artificial islands Construction and Placing of Tunnel Elements Concrete tunnels Steel tunnels Utility tunnels Temporary works equipment Float up Transportation Immersion Ballast exchange Lessons learned Finishing Works Tunnel entry procedures Joints Ballast concrete Fire protection Cladding, kerbs, and crash barriers Drainage Rail tracks and road surfacing M&E installation Operation and Maintenance Operation Maintenance Rail tunnels Contract Forms Form of contract Contract documents Ground conditions Dispute resolution Insurance Payment Privately financed construction The Future Going longer Going deeper Materials Submerged floating tunnels Location Glossary References Index
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