Immersive Sound: The Art and Science of Binaural and Multi-Channel Audio provides a comprehensive guide to multi-channel sound. With contributions from leading recording engineers, researchers, and industry experts, Immersive Sound includes an in-depth description of the physics and psychoacoustics of spatial audio as well as practical applications. Chapters include the history of 3D sound, binaural reproduction over headphones and loudspeakers, stereo, surround sound, height channels, object-based audio, soundfield (ambisonics), wavefield synthesis, and multi-channel mixing techniques. Knowledge of the development, theory, and practice of spatial and multi-channel sound is essential to those advancing the research and applications in the rapidly evolving fields of 3D sound recording, augmented and virtual reality, gaming, film sound, music production, and post-production.
Agnieszka Roginska is Music Associate Professor and Associate Director of the Music Technology program at New York University. Her research focuses on the analysis, simulation, and applications of immersive and 3D audio. Paul Geluso is Music Assistant Professor at New York University in the Music Technology program. His work focuses on the theoretical, practical, and artistic aspects of sound recording and reproduction.
Contributors Foreword WIESLAW WOSZCZYK Acknowledgements Introduction AGNIESZKA ROGINSKA AND PAUL GELUSO 1 Perception of Spatial Sound ELIZABETH M. WENZEL, DURAND R. BEGAULT, AND MARTINE GODFROY-COOPER Auditory Physiology Human Sound Localization Head-Related Transfer Functions (HRTFs) and Virtual Acoustics Neural Plasticity in Sound Localization Distance and Environmental Context Perception Conclusion 2 History of 3D Sound BRAXTON BOREN Introduction Prehistory Ancient History Space and Polyphony Spatial Separation in the Renaissance Spatial Innovations in Acoustic Music 3D Sound Technology Technology and Spatial Music Conclusions and Thoughts for the Future 3 Stereo PAUL GELUSO Stereo Systems Creating a Stereo Image Stereo Enhancement Summary 4 Binaural Audio Through Headphones AGNIESZKA ROGINSKA Headphone Reproduction Binaural Sound Capture HRTF Measurement Binaural Synthesis Inside-the-Head Locatedness Advanced HRTF Techniques Quality Assessment Binaural Reproduction Methods Headphone Equalization and Calibration Conclusions Appendix: Near Field 5 Binaural Audio Through Loudspeakers EDGAR CHOUEIRI Introduction The Fundamental XTC Problem Constant-Parameter Regularization Frequency-Dependent Regularization The Analytical BACCH Filter Individualized BACCH Filters Conclusions Appendix A Derivation of the Optimal XTC Filter Appendix B: Numerical Verification 6 Surround Sound FRANCIS RUMSEY The Evolution of Surround Sound Surround Sound Formats Surround Sound Delivery and Coding Surround Sound Monitoring Surround Sound Recording Techniques Perceptual Evaluation Predictive Models of Surround Sound Quality 7 Height Channels SUNGYOUNG KIM Background Fundamental Psychoacoustics of Height-Channel Perception Multichannel Reproduction Systems With Height Channels Recording With Height Channels Conclusion 8 Object-Based Audio NICOLAS TSINGOS Introduction Spatial Representation and Rendering of Audio Objects Advanced Metadata and Applications of Object-Based Representations Managing Complexity of Object-Based Content Audio Object Coding Capturing Audio Objects Tradeoffs of Object-Based Representations Object-Based Loudness Estimation and Control Object-Based Program Interchange and Delivery Conclusion 9 Sound Field ROZENN NICOL Introduction Development of the Sound Field Higher Order Ambisonics (HOA) Sound Field Synthesis Sound Field Formats Conclusion Appendix A: Mathematics and Physics of Sound Field Appendix B: Mathematical Derivation of W, X, Y, Z Appendix C: The Optimal Number of Loudspeakers 10 Wave Field Synthesis THOMAS SPORER, KARLHEINZ BRANDENBURG, SANDRA BRIX, AND CHRISTOPH SLADECZEK Motivation and History Separation of Sound Objects and Room WFS Reproduction: Challenges and Solutions WFS With Elevation Audio Metadata and WFS Applications Based on WFS and Hybrid Schemes WFS and Object-Based Sound Production 11 Applications of Extended Multichannel Techniques BRETT LEONARD Source Panning and Spreading An Immersive Overhaul for Preexisting Content Considerations in Mixing for Film and Games Envelopment Musings on Immersive Mixing Index