Immigrant populations, growing quickly in both size and diversity, have become an important segment of the U.S. college student population, one that will profoundly transform the educational landscape and workforce in coming decades. Nevertheless, immigrant students in higher education are often inaccurately characterized and largely misunderstood. In response to this alarming disconnect, this monograph reviews and synthesizes the existing body of literature on immigrant students, with special attention placed on transitions to college and collegiate experiences. The authors lay a foundation for future research and draw out implications for policies and practices that will better serve the educational needs of this growing population. This is the 6th issue of the 38th volume of the Jossey-Bass series ASHE Higher Education Report. Each monograph is the definitive analysis of a tough higher education issue, based on thorough research of pertinent literature and institutional experiences. Topics are identified by a national survey.
Noted practitioners and scholars are then commissioned to write the reports, with experts providing critical reviews of each manuscript before publication.
Executive Summary vii Foreword xi Acknowledgments xv Introduction, Context, and Overview 1 Why Focus on Immigrants? 2 Immigrant as a Conceptual Term 4 Definitions of Key Terms 7 Limitations of the Monograph 10 Organization of the Monograph 11 A Context for Immigration in the United States 12 Theoretical Foundation: Immigrant Student College Transition and Persistence 25 Neo-Racism 26 Social-Ecological Model 27 Acculturation and Assimilation Th eories 30 Social Capital Th eory 36 Conclusion 45 Access to Higher Education for Immigrant Students 47 Generational Status 48 Socioeconomic Status 49 English Language Profi ciency 52 Parental Involvement and Expectations 55 Financial Aid 57 Conclusion 60 Collegiate Experience of Immigrant Students 61 College Adjustment and Persistence 62 Psychological Development and Acculturation 65 Social Identity Development 68 Career Aspirations and Development 72 Conclusion 74 Undocumented Students and Higher Education 77 Background on Undocumented Immigrants 79 Federal Legislation and Undocumented Students 80 State Approaches to Undocumented Students and Higher Education 84 Opposition to In-state Tuition Rates for Undocumented Students 88 Conclusion 89 Immigrant Students and Community Colleges 91 Relevant Research on Immigrants at Community Colleges 93 Issues Related to Immigrant Students in Community Colleges 97 Innovative Programs for Educating Immigrants 102 Conclusion 105 Concluding Th oughts 109 Suggestions for Future Research 110 Implications for Policy and Practice 112 Conclusion 114 Notes 117 Appendix 121 References 135 Name Index 157 Subject Index 163 About the Authors 169
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