Why are traditional nation-states newly defining membership and belonging? In the twenty-first century, several Western European states have attached obligatory civic integration requirements as conditions for citizenship and residence, which include language proficiency, country knowledge and value commitments for immigrants. This book examines this membership policy adoption and adaptation through both medium-N analysis and three paired comparisons to argue that while there is convergence in instruments, there is also significant divergence in policy purpose, design and outcomes. To explain this variation, this book focuses on the continuing, dynamic interaction of institutional path dependency and party politics. Through paired comparisons of Austria and Denmark, Germany and the United Kingdom, and the Netherlands and France, this book illustrates how variations in these factors - as well as a variety of causal processes - produce divergent civic integration policy strategies that, ultimately, preserve and anchor national understandings of membership.
Sara Wallace Goodman is an assistant professor in the Department of Political Science at the University of California, Irvine. She has previously held a postdoctoral fellowship at Maastricht University, in association with the European Union Observatory on Democracy Citizenship Consortium, based out of the European University Institute. Her work has been published in World Politics, West European Politics, Political Studies, and the Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, and she has received awards from the European Politics and Society Section and the Migration and Citizenship Section of the American Political Science Association as well as from the British Politics Group.
Introduction; 1. Membership matters: concept precision and state identity; 2. Identifying empirical variation in civic-integration policies; 3. Explaining civic-integration diversity: citizenship and government orientation; 4. Examining context: Austria and Denmark; 5. Examining politics: Germany and the UK; 6. Examining interactions and processes: the Netherlands and France; 7. External dimensions of civic integration: requirements for entry; Conclusion: the anchoring of citizenship; Appendix I. Common European Framework of Reference for Languages (CEFR); Appendix II. Other indices for civic-integration policy and calculated correlations; Appendix III. Citizenship indicator scores.
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