The eye and the ocular adnexa may give rise to over three hundred histologically different tumors - by far the largest tumor variety of the human body. However, the immunological behavior of these tumors has only been explored in some cases, although it is well established that the eye is an immune-privileged site in which cells that express foreign antigens escape immune-mediated elimination. Human tumors also create an immune-privileged surrounding and thereby escape from anti-tumor immune responses.
Highlighting aspects of ocular and general tumor, this text summarizes the role of the immune system and how tumor tissue can influence various parameters (T-cells, NK-cells, HLA-expression, apoptosis), leading to escape mechanisms used by the tumor. New therapeutic regimens urgently required by patients are also reviewed, and the immunological behavior of skin melanoma is compared to choroidal melanoma, whilst basal cell carcinoma of the ocular lid is compared to those of the skin.
1. Clinical Remarks on Intra- and Periocular Tumors 2. Ocular Immune Privilege and Tumors 3. The Role of Stroma in the Growth or Rejection of Antigenic Solid Tumors 4. Molecular Mechanisms of Melanoma Cell Motility and Tissue Invasion 5. Cellular and Molecular Mechanisms of Metastatic Tumor Spread in Uveal Melano 6. The Pivotal Role of VEGF in Tumor Angiogenesis 7. Natural Killer Cells and Uveal Melanoma 8. Specific Immune Response Against Tumor Antigens Defined by Cytotoxic T Lymphocytes (CTL) 9. HLA and Cancer: ss2-Microglobulin Mutations and Malignant Melanoma 10. HLA Antigens of Ocular Melanoma; Antigen Expression on Uveal Melanoma 11. CD40-CD40-Ligand-Interactions and Their Role in Cytotoxic T Lymphocyte Priming and Anti-tumor Immunity 12. The Role of Apoptosis in Cancerogenesis and Resistance to Therapy: Lessons from Malignant Glioma 13. Treatment of Disseminated Uveal Melanoma: A Continuing Dilemma? 14. Cytokine Therapy and Ocular Melanoma 15. Dendritic Cell-based Melanoma Vaccines 16. Immunology of Basal Cell Carcinoma of the Lid 17. CD44 Expression and Invasiveness in Basal Cell Carcinoma: A Brief Overview 18. Recognition of Lymphoma Cells by Human y8T Lymphocytes 19. Somatic Mutation Analysis of Ocular Adnexal Extranodal Marginal Zone b-cell Lymphomas 20. Immunopathology and Molecular Biology of Primary Intraocular Lymphoma 21. Immunology of Paraneoplastic Syndromes