This paper, based on quantitative surveys at the level of primary health care facilities, health care personnel, and households in their vicinity, aims at understanding the performance of primary health care providers in four states in Nigeria. As possible ways to improve performance, the paper concludes that clearly defining lines of responsibility, implementing performance-based financing of local governments and providers, and collecting, analyzing, and sharing information are some options that can help realign incentives and improve accountability in the service delivery chain and service provision. This working paper was produced as part of the World Bank's Africa Region Health Systems for Outcomes (HSO) Program. The Program, funded by the World Bank, the Government of Norway, the Government of the United Kingdom, and the Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunization (GAVI), focuses on strengthening health systems in Africa to reach the poor and achieve tangible results related to Health, Nutrition, and Population.
The main pillars and focus of the program center on knowledge and capacity building related to Human Resources for Health, Health Financing, Pharma-ceuticals, Governance and Service Delivery, and Infrastructure and ICT.