Americans are disgusted with watching politicians screaming and yelling at one another on television. But does all the noise really make a difference? Drawing on numerous studies, Diana Mutz provides the first comprehensive look at the consequences of in-your-face politics. Her book contradicts the conventional wisdom by documenting both the benefits and the drawbacks of in-your-face media. "In-your-face" politics refers to both the level of incivility and the up-close and personal way that we experience political conflict on television. Just as actual physical closeness intensifies people's emotional reactions to others, the appearance of closeness on a video screen has similar effects. We tend to keep our distance from those with whom we disagree. Modern media, however, puts those we dislike in our faces in a way that intensifies our negative reactions. Mutz finds that incivility is particularly detrimental to facilitating respect for oppositional political viewpoints and to citizens' levels of trust in politicians and the political process.
On the positive side, incivility and close-up camera perspectives contribute to making politics more physiologically arousing and entertaining to viewers. This encourages more attention to political programs, stimulates recall of the content, and encourages people to relay content to others. In the end, In-Your-Face Politics demonstrates why political incivility is not easily dismissed as a disservice to democracy--it may even be a necessity in an age with so much competition for citizens' attention.
Diana C. Mutz is the Samuel A. Stouffer Professor of Political Science and Communication at the University of Pennsylvania, where she serves as director of the Institute for the Study of Citizens and Politics at the Annenberg Public Policy Center. Her books include Population-Based Survey Experiments (Princeton), Hearing the Other Side, and Impersonal Influence.
List of Illustrations ix List of Tables xiii Acknowledgments xv Chapter 1 What Is "In-Your-Face" Politics? 1 Part I What Difference Does It Make? The Effects of In-Your-Face Political Television 17 Chapter 2 The Consequences of In-Your-Face Politics for Arousal and Memory 19 Chapter 3 Effects on Public Perceptions of the Legitimacy of the Opposition 46 Chapter 4 The Costs of In-Your-Face Politics for Political Trust 73 Part II When Does In-Your-Face Politics Matter? 93 Chapter 5 Real-World Contexts 95 Chapter 6 Who Watches This Stuff Anyway? The Audience for In-Your-Face Politics 116 Part III Historical Implications for Political Television 151 Chapter 7 Does the Medium Matter? 153 Chapter 8 How Politics on Television Has Changed 178 Chapter 9 Making Politics Palatable: Political Television in an Era of Choice 193 Appendix A Summary of Experimental Designs 223 Appendix B Summary of Experimental Dependent Variables 225 Appendix C National Survey Questions for Orientation toward Conflict Communication Scales 230 Appendix D Coding Form for Political Television Programs 231 Appendix E Coding Instructions for Televised Conflicts 233 Notes 239 References 247 Index 257