This book, now in its second edition, is a practical resource that helps speech-language pathologists, educators, and other professionals understand how poverty affects children's developing language and provides strategies that support these children and their families. The author, a university professor and part-time itinerant speech-language pathologist in the schools, balances research and practical, "Monday morning" strategies for professionals who want to help low-socioeconomic status (SES) students from preschool through high school succeed in school and, eventually, in society. The text presents up-to-date information about the "culture of poverty" and background information on factors impacting low-income children's language skills. It goes on to provide practical strategies for nonbiased assessment, intervention, structuring the school environment, and working with families.Helpful new features in the second edition include: Chapter highlights at the end of each chapter References to many new research studies Content grounded in principles of evidence-based practice Practice recommendations based in research from a variety of disciplines, such as social science, speech-language pathology, neuroscience, and education New case studies of the author's actual clients Because the Great Recession has rendered so many more families homeless, the second edition includes much more information about serving homeless students, including mitigating the effects of chaos through increasing executive functioning skills.
The author works directly with homeless people on the streets and therefore includes a broad-based (hands-on and research) perspective about meeting the unique needs of this population. The second edition contains new information about using Response to Intervention (RtI) to serve low-SES students in general education classroom settings. Updated technology recommendations (e.g., using iPad and YouTube technology) are presented. The section on increasing the literacy skills of low-SES students has been expanded, as well.In sum, the second edition of Increasing Language Skills of Students from Low-Income Backgrounds is a must-have for any professional who serves students and their families from low-SES backgrounds.
Celeste Roseberry-McKibbin, Ph.D. Celeste Roseberry-McKibbin, Ph.D., Department of Speech Pathology and Audiology, California State University, Sacramento.
Preface Acknowledgments 1. Introduction to Poverty: Variables Affecting Students' Performance Introduction Definitions and Demographics of Poverty Physical and Psychological Effects of Poverty Prenatal and Birth Issues Hunger and Malnutrition Overall Brain Development Basic Safety Issues Access to Health Care Environmental Issues Instability and Chaos Hearing and Vision Emotional Atmosphere of the Home Understanding Children and Families from Backgrounds of Situational and Generational Poverty Conclusion Chapter Highlights 2. Language Skills and Behavioral Characteristics in Children of Families of Low Socioeconomic Status Introduction Factors Affecting and Characteristics of Oral Language Skills of Low-SES Children Overview The Research of Hart and Risley Follow-up Research on Hart and Risley: Greenwood and Colleagues Other Factors Affecting Oral Language Development of Low-SES Children Job- and Environment-Related Communication Styles Parental Attitudes Toward Oral Language Stimulation Factors Affecting and Characteristics of Literacy Skills of Low-SES Children Material and Psychological Resources Phonological and Print Awareness Skills Behavioral Characteristics of Some Children from Low-SES Homes Conclusion Chapter Highlights 3. Considerations in Assessment of the Language Skills of Students from Low-SES Backgrounds Introduction Laws Affecting the Assessment of Children from Low-SES Families for Special Education Response to Intervention Preliminary Components of the Assessment Process Screening The Case History The Use of Standardized Tests General Considerations in Using Standardized Tests with Students from Low-SES Backgrounds Formal Test Assumptions Sources of Bias in the Use of Standardized Tests with Culturally and ::Linguistically Diverse Students from Low-SES Backgrounds Modifying Standardized Tests for Use with Students from Low-SES Backgrounds Language Samples General Considerations Informal Evaluation of Language Use Other Alternatives to Standardized Assessment Legal Considerations Dynamic Assessment Portfolio Assessment Assessment of Information Processing Skills Conclusion Chapter Highlights 4. Practical Strategies for Increasing the Oral Language Skills of Children from Low-SES Families Introduction Stimulating Infant Language Development General Principles Using Books with Babies Stimulating Language Development in Toddlers and Preschoolers The Importance of High-Quality Preschool Experiences The Importance of Appropriate Training for Early Child Care Providers Practical Strategies for Increasing the Language Skills of Toddlers and :Preschoolers in Natural Settings General Principles of Successful Language Stimulation with Young Children Specific Incidental Learning/Milieu Teaching Techniques to Encourage Language :Development Increasing Vocabulary Skills Practical Strategies for Teaching Formal Language Register in Naturalistic Settings Increasing Language Skills in Formal Register Increasing Grammatical Language Skills in Formal Register Increasing Pragmatic Language Skills in Formal Register Conclusion Chapter Highlights 5. Practical Strategies for Increasing the Literacy Skills of Students From Low-SES Backgrounds Introduction Optimizing Book Reading Experiences for Young Children Increasing Early Preliteracy and Literacy Skills: Evidence-Based Strategies Basic Principles Increasing Children's Phonological Awareness Skills Increasing Print Awareness Skills Additional Strategies for Enhancing Early Literacy Skills Enhancing Literacy Skills in the Elementary Years and Beyond Increasing Vocabulary Skills for Reading Success Providing Assistance for Students from Low-SES Backgrounds with Other Written :Language Challenges Conclusions Chapter Highlights 6. Structuring the School Environment for Optimal Performance of Students from Low-SES Backgrounds Introduction Current School Conditions and Attempts at Reform Attempts at School Reform Current Conditions in Low-SES Schools Teacher Preparation and Developing Professionalism Integrating Schools by Students' Socioeconomic Status School Enhancement: Providing Supportive Programs and Relationships for :Students from Low-SES Backgrounds Parallel Education Systems All Day Kindergartens Implementing the Arts Providing Supplemental Programs Opportunities for Schools to Connect with Community Resources Serving Gifted Students From Low-SES Backgrounds Conclusions Chapter Highlights 7. Practical Strategies for Enhancing Learning, Motivation, and Self-Esteem in Low-SES Students Introduction Enhancing Learning: Optimizing the Environment Practical Strategies for Enhancing Whole-Brain Learning Reducing Stress Increasing Memory Skills Contextualizing Language for Children from Low-SES Backgrounds Children from Low-SES Families and Language Learning in School Increasing Contextual Cues to Enhance Learning Dealing Constructively with Students from the Culture of Resistance Enhancing Self-Esteem and Motivation: Providing Appropriate Learning Incentives Increasing Student Independence and Self-Direction Basic Principles Implementing the Equity Game Emphasizing Effort Over Ability Utilizing Multiple Intelligences Conclusions Chapter Highlights 8. Poverty and Highly Mobile Populations: Mitigating the Impact of High Mobility and Chaos Introduction Chaos: Definition, Characteristics, and Impact on Students Characteristics and Impact of Disorder Characteristics and Impact of Turbulence Chaos: General Impact on American Children High Mobility and Chaos: Specific Impact on Schools and Classrooms Special Considerations in Serving Migrant Students Serving Students Who Are Homeless Introduction and Demographic Data Specific Characteristics and Needs of Homeless Students and Their Families Practical Strategies for Supporting Homeless Students and Their Families Increasing Executive Functioning Skills in Highly Mobile Students Impacted by Chaos Definition and Basic Facts Practical Strategies for Increasing Executive Functioning Skills of Highly :Mobile Students General Strategies Developing a Sense of Structure, Routine, and Time Concepts Learning Classroom Routines and Scripts Self-Reflection and Planning: Taking Responsibility for Choices and ::Consequences Conclusions Chapter Highlights 9. Considerations in Working with Families of Students from Low-SES Backgrounds Introduction Low-SES Families: Cultural and Social Capital Low-SES, CLD Families: Special Considerations in Service Delivery Some General Considerations Providing Services for Students and Families from Immigrant/Refugee ::Backgrounds Language and Literacy Practices in CLD Families: Facilitating an Optimal ::Language Learning Environment for Children Facilitating Overall Involvement of CLD Families in Children's Education Possible Value Conflicts Between Low-SES Families and Middle-SES Professionals Facilitating Foundational Support Services for Low-SES Families: Practical :Suggestions Supporting Low-SES Families in Meeting Basic Needs Supporting Children from Homes Characterized by Abuse or Neglect Helping Caregivers Provide a Supportive Home Atmosphere Conclusions Chapter Highlights 10. Some Words of Encouragement References Index