Since the earliest years of European colonialism, Latin America has been a region of seemingly intractable inequalities, marked by a stark divide between the haves and the have-nots. This collection illuminates the diverse processes that have combined to produce and reproduce inequalities in Latin America, as well as some of the implications of those processes for North Americans. Anthropologists, cultural critics, historians, and political scientists from North and South America offer new and varied perspectives, building on the sociologist Charles Tilly's relational framework for understanding enduring inequalities. While one essay is a broad yet nuanced analysis of Latin American inequality and its persistence, another is a fine-grained ethnographic view of everyday life and aspirations among shantytown residents living on the outskirts of Lima. Other essays address topics such as the initial bifurcation of Peru's healthcare system into one for urban workers and another for the rural poor, the asymmetrical distribution of political information in Brazil, and an evolving Cuban "aesthetics of inequality," which incorporates hip-hop and other transnational cultural currents. Exploring the dilemmas of Latin American inequalities as they are playing out in the United States, a contributor looks at new immigrant Mexican farmworkers in upstate New York to show how undocumented workers become a vulnerable rural underclass. Taken together, the essays extend social inequality critiques in important new directions.Contributors
Paul Gootenberg is Professor of History and Sociology at Stony Brook University and the author of Andean Cocaine: The Making of a Global Drug. Luis Reygadas is Professor of Anthropology at the Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Mexico. He is the author of La apropiacion: Destejiendo las redes de la desigualdad.
Acknowledgments vii Foreword: The Paradox of Inequality in Latin America / Eric Hershberg xi Part I. New Approaches, Old Disciplines 1. Latin American Inequalities: New Perspectives from History, Politics, and Culture / Paul Gootenberg 3 2. The Construction of Latin American Inequality / Luis Reygadas 23 Part II. History, Subjectivity, and Politics 3. Health Policy and the Historical Reproduction of Class, Race, and Gender Inequality in Peru / Christina Ewig 53 4. Incommensurable Worlds of Practice and Value: A View from the Shantytowns of Lima / Jeanine Anderson 81 5. Inequalities of Political Information and Participation: The Case of the 2002 Brazilian Elections / Lucio Renno 106 Part III. Culture across Borders 6. Between Orishas and Revolution: The Expression of Radical Inequalities in Post-Soviet Cuba / Odette Casamayor 139 7. How Latin American Inequality Becomes Latino Inequality: A Case Study of Hudson Valley Farmworkers / Margaret Gray 169 8. Afterword: Funes and the Toolbox of Inequality / Javier Auyero 193 Bibliography 199 About the Contributors 221 Index 223