There's more to Indiana weather than what greets us when we go outdoors. Ever wonder why the daily weather report is so erratic? Why the seasons seem to come too early or start too late? Whether there really is such a thing as global warming? This fascinating and informative book tells the story behind the daily forecast, seasonal variations, and climate change. It explains why there are seasons in this part of the world and examines some of their more dramatic aspects-thunderstorms, tornadoes, floods, droughts, and snowstorms. Here you'll find information on forecasting, weather satellites, and data collection; on faraway events that influence Indiana's weather, such as El Nino; and on long- and short-term changes in Indiana's climate beginning more than 1,000 years ago. Air pollution, urban heat islands, "the LaPorte anomaly"-it's all here in this comprehensive and up-to-date reference.
John E. Oliver (1933-2008) was Emeritus Professor of Physical Geography and Director of the Climate Laboratory at Indiana State University. He authored or edited 12 books, including The Encyclopedia of World Climatology.
TABLE OF CONTENTS PREFACE ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS INTRODUCTION CHAPTER 1. WHY THE SEASONS? Sun and Earth Days, Nights and Sun in the Sky Temperatures Of Interest: Temperature Scales Climatological Seasons Clouds Precipitation Air in Motion Air Masses and Fronts The Westerlies Jet Streams and the Seasons In Summary CHAPTER 2. SPRING Thunderstorms Airmass (Ordinary) Thunderstorms Supercell Thunderstorms Tornadoes: Formation and Characteristics Tornado Intensity: The F Scale Indiana Tornadoes (S. C. Pryor) Tornado Forecasting - Watches and Warnings Tornado Occurrence in Indiana Of Interest: Storm Chasing (G. Bierly) Where Do Tornadoes Occur? Of Interest: Doppler Radar When Do Tornadoes Occur? Worst Tornadoes in Indiana History In Summary: Tornadoes CHAPTER 3. SUMMER Thunder, Lightning and Hail Lightning Hail Extremes I. Floods Extreme Precipitation in Indiana (J. Howe and S.C. Pryor) Calculating Extremes Extremes II. Drought Worst Case Droughts in Indiana Of Interest: Monitoring Drought People and Summer Cooling Degree Days Sunburn Heat and Heat Waves CHAPTER 4. FALL A Quiet Transition Season Autumn Leaves Dew, Frost, Mist and Fog Of Interest: Moisture in the Air Air Quality (S. C. Pryor and A. M. Spalding) Air Quality Standards Of Interest: Five Criteria Air Pollutants The Air Quality Index Air Quality in Indiana Emissions of Pollutants Monitoring Air Quality How Clean is Our Air? Air Quality: In Summary CHAPTER 5. WINTER The Continent Effect Winter Precipitation Of Interest: Sound and Snow The Lake Effect (C. Clark) Cold Weather Heating Degree Days Windchill Some Recent Severe Winters CHAPTER 6. MONIT